Catholic Answers

R

Rabbi and Rabbinism
The special condition which prevailed in Palestine after the Restoration led to the gradually increasing importance of the Temple, and of the priesthood ministering in it.
Rabbulas
Bishop of Edessa, in the later years of his life one of the foremost opponents of Nestorianism, was the son of a heathen priest and a Christian mother
Raccolta
A book containing prayers and pious exercises to which the popes have attached indulgences
Rachel
Daughter of Laban and younger sister of Lia
Radulph of Rivo
Historian and liturgist, b. at Breda, in Dutch Brabant, about the middle of the fourteenth century; d. at Tongres, Nov. 3, 1403
Rafael Carrera
B. at Guatemala, Central America, October 24, 1814; d. there April 14, 1865
Rafael Ferrer
Spanish missionary and explorer; b. at Valencia, in 1570; d. at San Jose, Peru, in 1611
Raffaele Garrucci
Historian of Christian art, b. at Naples, January 23, 1812; d. at Rome, May 5, 1885
Raffaele Venusti
B. at Tirane, Valtellina, northern Italy, about the end of the fifteenth century; d. at Venice, in 1543
Raffaello Morghen
Italian engraver, b. at Portici, June 19, 1758 (1761?); d. at Florence, April 8, 1833
Raffaelo Maffei
Humanist, historian, and theologian, b. February 17, 1451; d. January 25, 1522
Raimundo Diosdado Caballero
Miscellaneous writer, chiefly ecclesiastical, b. at Palma, in the island of Majorca, June 19, 1740; d. at Rome, either 16 Jan., 1830, or April 28, 1829
Rainald of Dassel
B. probably not before 1115; d. in Italy, August 14, 1167
Rainerio Sacchoni
Learned and zealous Dominican, b. at Piacenza about the beginning of the thirteenth century; d. about 1263
Ralph Ashley, Venerable
Martyred Jesuit laybrother (d. 1606)
Ralph Baines
Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, England (d.1519)
Ralph Crockett, Venerable
English martyr, b. at Barton, near Farndon, Cheshire; executed at Chichester, October 1, 1588
Ralph de Diceto
Dean of St. Paul's, London, and chronicler; date of his birth must be placed between 1120 and 1130; he died Nov. 22, 1202
Ralph Milner, Venerable
Layman and martyr, b. at Flacsted, Hants, England, early in the sixteenth century; suffered at Winchester, July 7, 1591
Ralph Sherwin, Blessed
English martyr, b. 1550 at Rodesley, near Longford, Derbyshire; d. at Tyburn, December 1, 1581
Ramatha
A titular see in Palestine, suppressed in 1884 by the Roman Curia
Rambler, The
A Catholic periodical
Ramon de La Cruz
A poet, b. at Madrid, Spain, March 28, 1731; d. in the same city, November 4, 1795
Ramsey Abbey
Huntingdonshire, England, was founded by Ailwine (Ethelwine, Egelwine), a Saxon noble, in 969
Ranulf de Glanville
English chief justiciar; b. (date unknown) d. 1190
Ranulf Higden
Benedictine, chronicler; d. 1364
Raoul Glaber
Benedictine chronicler; b.before 1000; d. about 1050
Raphael
Raphael
Raphael Badius
Florentine Dominican of the seventeenth century
Raphael Semmes
Naval officer, b. in Charles County, Maryland, U.S.A., September 27, 1809; d. at Point Clear, Alabama, August 26, 1877
Raphael, Saint
The archangel
Raskolniks
A generic term for dissidents from the Established Church in Russia
Ratherius of Verona
B. about 887; d. at Namur April 25, 974. He belonged to a noble family which lived in the territory of Liege
Ratio Studiorum
The educational system of the Jesuits
Rationale
An episcopal humeral, a counterpart of the pallium, and like it worn over the chasuble
Rationalism
The term is used: (1) in an exact sense, to designate a particular moment in the development of Protestant thought in Germany; (2) in a broader, and more usual, sense to cover the view (in relation to which many schools may be classed as rationalistic) th
Ratramnus
A Benedictine monk at the Abbey of Corbie, in the present Department of Somme; one of the most important ecclesiastical authors of the ninth century, d. after 868
Raymond Bonal
French theologian, founder of the Congregation of the Priests of St. Mary (1600-1653)
Raymond Breton
French missionary among the Caribbean Indians (1609-1679)
Raymond Caron
Franciscan friar and author, b. at Athlone, Ireland, in 1605; d. at Dublin, 1666
Raymond D'Agiles
Chronicler and canon of Puy-en-Velay, France, toward the close of the eleventh century
Raymond IV
Count of Toulouse and of Tripoli, b. about 1043; d. at Tripoli in 1105. He was the son of Raymond III, Pons, and in 1088 succeeded his brother, William IV, who had died without male issue
Raymond Lully
Philosopher, poet, and theologian, b. at Palma in Majorca, between 1232 and 1236; d. at Tunis, June 29, 1315
Raymond Martini
Dominican, theologian, Orientalist, b. at Subirats, Catalonia, c. 1220; d. after July, 1284
Raymond Nonnatus, Saint
B. 1200 or 1204 at Portello in the Diocese of Urgel in Catalonia; d. at Cardona, Aug. 31, 1240
Raymond of Penafort, Saint
B. at Villafranca de Benadis, near Barcelona, in 1175; d. at Barcelona, Jan. 6, 1275
Raymond of Sabunde
B. at Barcelona, Spain, towards the end of the fourteenth century; d. 1432. From 1430 to his death he taught theology, philosophy, and medicine at the University of Toulouse
Raymond VI
Count of Toulouse, b. 1156; d. 1222; succeeded his father, Raymond V, in 1195
Raymond VII
Count of Toulouse, son of Raymond VI, b. at Beaucaire, 1197; d. at Milhaud, 1249
Reading Abbey
Surrey, England, was founded by Henry I in 1121
Reason
Both in ordinary life and in philosophical discussions the term reason is of frequent occurrence in different signification.
Rechab and the Rechabites
Rechab was the father of Jonadab who in 4 Kings 10:15-28, appears as a fervent supporter of Jehu's attack on the House of Achab in his endeavor to root out the idolatrous worship which that dynasty had encouraged.
Recollection
As understood in respect to the spiritual life, means attention to the presence of God in the soul
Rector
Priests who preside over missions or quasi-parishes are called rectors: in England and the United States they are removable and irremovable, or permanent.
Recusants
The first statute in which the term 'Popish Recusants' is used is 35 Eliz. c. 2, 'An Act for restraining Popish Recusants to some certain place of abode', which was passed in 1593.
Red Sea
The north-west arm of the Indian Ocean
Redemption
The restoration of man from the bondage of sin to the liberty of the children of God through the satisfactions and merits of Christ
Redemption (in the Old Testament)
Either deliverance by payment of a price or ransom, or simply deliverance by power
Redemptoristines
The cradle of the Redemptoristines is Scala, not far from Amalfi, Italy.
Redemptorists
A society of missionary priests founded by St. Alphonsus Maria Liguori, Nov. 9, 1732, at Scala, near Amalfi, Italy
Reductions of Paraguay
The Jesuit Reductions of Paraguay, one of the most singular and beautiful creations of Catholic missionary activity, have contributed more than any other factor to fix the name of Paraguay in history.
Referendarii
Existed at the Byzantine Court; officials who reported to the emperor on the memorials of petitioners, and conveyed to the judges the orders of the emperor in connection with such memorials
Reform of a Religious Order
A return or bringing back of the order from a mitigated or relaxed observance to the rigor of its primitive rule
Reform of the Calendar
Covers various reforms of the calendar to make it more accurate
Reformation, The
The religious movement which made its appearance in Western Europe in the sixteenth century, and which, while ostensibly aiming at an internal renewal of the Church, really led to a great revolt against it, and an abandonment of the principal Christian be
Reformed Churches
Protestant bodies which adopted the tenets of Zwingli and; later, the doctrinal principles of Calvin
Regalia
According to the usage current in the British Isles the term regalia is almost always employed to denote the insignia of royalty or 'crown jewels'
Regeneration
A Biblico-dogmatic term closely connected with the ideas of justification, Divine sonship, and the deification of the soul through grace
Regina Coeli
The opening words of the Eastertide anthem of the Blessed Virgin, the recitation of which is prescribed in the Roman Breviary from Compline of Holy Saturday until none of the Saturday after Pentecost inclusively
Reginald of Piperno
Dominican, theologian, companion of St. Thomas Aquinas, b. at Piperno about 1230; d. about 1290
Reginald Pecock
Bishop of Chichester, b. in North Wales about 1395; d. at Thorny. Abbey about 1460
Reginald Pole
Cardinal, b. at Stourton Castle, Staffordshire, England, in March, 1500; d. at Lambeth Palace, Nov. 17, 1558
Regino of Prum
Date of birth unknown; d. at Trier in 915
Regionarii
Those clerics and officials of the Church in Rome who were attached neither to the papal palace or patriarchium, nor to the titular churches of Rome
Regulae Juris
General rules or principles serving chiefly for the interpretation of laws
Regulars
The observance of the Rule of St. Benedict procured for the monks at an early period the name of 'regulars'
Reichenau
An island upon the Gnadensee (Untersee) of the Lake of Constance
Reifenstein
A former Cistercian abbey in Eichsfeld, founded on August 1, 1162, by Count Ernst of Tonna
Reinmar of Hagenau
A German minnesinger of the twelfth century, surnamed in the MSS. der Alte (the old) to distinguish him from later poets of that name
Relationship
A certain connection of persons established either by nature or by the civil or canon law
Relativism
Any doctrine which denies, universally or in regard to some restricted sphere of being, the existence of absolute values, may be termed Relativism.
Relics
Some object, notably part of the body or clothes, remaining as a memorial of a departed saint
Religion
The voluntary subjection of oneself to God
Religion of Shakespeare
Examination of evidence on whether or not Shakespeare ever professed Catholicism
Religious Communities of the Name of Jesus
Listing of names and descriptions of these communities
Religious Congregations of the Holy Ghost
Name applied to several religious congregations
Religious Congregations of the Presentation
(1) Daughters of the Presentation; (2) Sisters of the Presentation of the Blessed Virgin; (3) Sisters of the Presentation of Mary; (4) Sisters of the Presentation of Our Lady
Religious Discussions
As contradistinguished from polemical writings, designate oral dialectical duels, more or less formal and public, between champions of divergent religious beliefs
Religious Dower
Sum of money or the property that a religious woman, or nun brings, for her maintenance, into the convent where she desires to make her profession
Religious indifferentism
Term given to theories which deny that it is the duty of man to worship God by believing and practicing the one true religion
Religious Life
A life directed to personal perfection, or a life seeking union with God
Religious Obedience
That general submission which religious vow to God, and voluntarily promise to their superiors, in order to be directed by them in the ways of perfection according to the purpose and constitutions of their order
Religious of Jesus Mary
Religious congregation founded by Mother St. Ignatius (Claudine Thevenet)
Religious of Perpetual Adoration
A congregation with simple vows, founded at Brussels, 1857, by Anna de Meeus, daughter of Count Ferdinand de Meeus
Religious of the Cenacle
Society of religious founded in France
Religious of the Perpetual Adoration
A contemplative religious congregation, founded in 1526 by Sister Elizabeth Zwirer (d. 1546), at Einsiedeln, Switzerland
Religious Painting
Painting has always been associated with the life of the Church.
Religious Profession
The origins of religious profession date from the time when Christians were recognized in the Church as followers after perfection in the practice of religious life.
Religious Song
Numerous poetical and musical creations which have come into existence in the course of time and are used in connection with public Divine worship, but which are not included in the official liturgy on account of their more free and subjective character
Religious Toleration
Treatment of the concept of religious toleration
Religious Veil
In ancient Rome a red veil, or a veil with red stripes, distinguished newly-married women from the unmarried.
Reliquaries
Any box, casket, or shrine destined for the reception of relics
Remesiana
Titular see in Dacia Mediterranea, suffragan of Sardica
Remi Ceillier
Patrologist, b. at Bar-le-Duc, May 14, 1688; d. at Flavigny, May 26, 1763
Remigius of Auxerre
A Benedictine monk, b. about the middle of the ninth century; d. 908
Remigius, Saint
Apostle of the Franks, Archbishop of Reims, b. at Cerny or Laon, 437; d. at Reims, January 13, 553
Remiremont
Vosges, France, monastery and nunnery of the Rule of St. Benedict, founded by Sts. Romaricus and Amatus in 620, on hills above the site where the town now stands, whence the name Rromarici Mons, Remiremoit
Renaissance, The
(1) the achievements of what is termed the modern spirit in opposition to the spirit which prevailed during the Middle Ages; or (2) the revival of classic, especially of Greek, learning and the recovery of ancient art in the departments of sculpture, pain
Renaud de Beaune
French Bishop, born 1527 at Tours; died 1606 in Paris
Rene Descartes
Philosopher and scientist, b. at La Haye, France, March 31, 1596; d. at Stockholm, Sweden, Feb. 11, 1650
Rene Francois Rohrbacher
Ecclesiastical historian, b. at Langatte September 27, 1789; d. in Paris, January 17, 1856
Rene Goupil
Jesuit missionary martyred in New York; b. 1607, 1642
Rene Massuet
Benedictine patrologist, of the Congregation of St. Maur; b. Aug. 13, 1666; d. Jan. 11, 1716
Rene Menard
Missionary, b. at Paris, 1604; d. about Aug. 10, 1661
Rene Rapin
French Jesuit, b. at Tours, 1621; d. in Paris, 1687
Rene-Edouard Caron
A French Canadian statesman and magistrate, b. at Sainte Anne de Beaupre, Canada, October 13, 1800, ; d. December 13, 1876
Rene-Prosper Tassin
French historian, b. 1697; d. 1777
Rene-Robert-Cavelier La Salle
Explorer, b. at Rouen, 1643; d. in Texas, 1687
Rene-Theophile-Hyacinthe Laennec
French physician (1781-1826)
Reneaubert Vertot
Sieur de, French historian, b. at Benetot, Normandy, Nov. 25, 1655; d. in Paris, June 15, 1735
Renunciation
The resignation of an ecclesiastical office or benefice
Reordinations
The Oratorian Jean Morin, in the seventeenth century, and Cardinal Hergenrother, in the nineteenth, designated as 'reordinations' the history of all ordinations which were considered null for any other reason than defect of the prescribed form or intentio
Reparation
A theological concept closely connected with those of atonement and satisfaction, and thus belonging to some of the deepest mysteries of the Christian Faith
Republic and Diocese of Nicaragua
The diocese, suffragan of Guatemala, is coextensive with the Central American Republic of Nicaragua
Republic and Diocese of Panama
In Central America
Republic of Colombia
Forms the northwest corner of the South American Continent
Republic of Costa Rica
Narrow isthmus between Panama, the Republic of Nicaragua, the Caribbean Sea, and the Pacific Ocean
Reputation
It is certain that a man is indefeasibly the owner of what he has been able to produce by his own labor out of his own material, employing his own resources. In much the same way his reputation, which is the outcome of his meritorious activity, is his pro
Rerum Creator Optime
The hymn for Matins of Wednesday in the Divine Office
Rerum Deus Tenax Vigor
The daily hymn for None in the Roman Breviary
Rerum Novarum
The opening words and the title of the Encyclical issued by Leo XIII, May 15, 1891
Reservation
The restriction in certain cases by a superior of the jurisdiction ordinarily exercised by an inferior
Reserved Cases
A term used for sins whose absolution is not within the power of every confessor, but is reserved to himself by the superior of the confessor, or only specially granted to some other confessor by that superior
Responsory Responsorium
A series of verses and responses, usually taken from Holy Scripture and varying according to the feast or season
Restitution
An act of commutative justice by which exact reparation as far as possible is made for an injury that has been done to another
Resurrection
The rising again from the dead, the resumption of life
Retreat of the Sacred Heart
Founded in 1678 under the name of the Institute of Retreat, at Quimper, in Brittany, by Mademoiselle Claude-Therese de Kermeno under the direction of the Jesuit Father Huby
Retreats
A series of days passed in solitude and consecrated to practices of asceticism in particular to prayer and penance
Reuss
The two smallest states of the German Confederation
Revelation
The communication of some truth by God to a rational creature through means which are beyond the ordinary course of nature
Revision of Vulgate
In the spring of 1907 the public press announced that Pius X had determined to begin preparations for a critical revision of the Latin Bible.
Revocation
The act of recalling or annulling, the reversal of an act, the recalling of a grant, or the making void of some deed previously existing
Rex Gloriose Martyrum
Hymn at Lauds in the Common of Martyrs
Rex Sempiterne Caelitum
Roman Breviary hymn for Matins of Sundays and weekdays during the Paschal Time
Reyer Anslo
Dutch poet and convert (1622-1669)
Rhaphanaea
Titular see in Syria Secunda, suffragan of Apamea
Rhenish Palatinate
A former German electorate
Rhesaena
Titular see in Osrhoene, suffragan of Edessa
Rhinocolura
Titular see in Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium
Rhithymna
Titular see of Crete, suffragan of Gortyna
Rhizus
Titular see of Pontus Polemoniacus suffragan of Neocaesarea
Rhode Island
State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, one of the thirteen original colonies
Rhodes
Titular metropolitan of the Cyclades
Rhodesia
Located in South Africa
Rhodiopolis
Titular see of Lycia, suffragan of Myra
Rhodo
Christian writer who flourished in the time of Commodus
Rhosus
Titular see in Cilicia Secunda, suffragan to Anazarba
Rhymed Bibles
Rhymed versions of the Bible are almost entirely collections of the psalms
Rhythmical Office
Canonical hours of the priest, or an office of the Breviary, in which not only the hymns are regulated by a certain rhythm
Ricardus Anglicus
Archdeacon of Bologna and rector of a law school
Richard
Friar Minor and preacher, appearing in history between 1428 and 1431, whose origin and nationality are unknown
Richard Angelus Mason
English or Irish Franciscan writer; b. in Wiltshire, 1599; d. at Douai, Dec. 30, 1678
Richard Archdeacon
Irish Jesuit (1620-1693)
Richard Bellings
Irish historian (ca. 1600-1677)
Richard Bristow
Orator (1538-1581)
Richard Broughton
Catholic priest and antiquary (ca. 1558 - ca. 1634)
Richard Byrne
Brevet brigadier general, United States Army, b. in Co. Cavan, Ireland, 1832, d. at Washington, June 10, 1864
Richard Challoner
Bishop of Debra, Vicar Apostolic of the London District, author of spiritual and controversial works (1691-1781)
Richard Crashaw
Poet, Cambridge scholar and convert; d. 1649
Richard Creagh
Archbishop of Armagh, Ireland, b. at Limerick early in the sixteenth century; d. in the Tower of London, in 1585
Richard de Bury
Bishop and bibliophile, b. near Bury St. Edmund's, Suffolk, England, Jan. 24, 1286; d. at Auckland, Durham, England, April 24, 1345
Richard de la Vergne
Archbishop of Paris, b. at Nantes, March 1, 1819; d. in Paris, January 28, 1908
Richard de Wyche, Saint
Bishop and confessor, b. about 1197 at Droitwich, Worcestershire, from which his surname is derived; d. April 3, 1253, at Dover
Richard Doyle
English artist and caricaturist, b. in London, September, 1824; d. there December 11, 1883
Richard Fetherston, Blessed
Priest and martyr. d. at Smithfield, July 30, 1540
Richard Fitzralph
Archbishop of Armagh, b. at Dundalk, Ireland, about 1295; d. at Avignon, Dec. 16, 1360
Richard Fleming
Bishop of Lincoln and founder of Lincoln College, Oxford; b. of a good Yorkshire family about 1360, Croston being sometimes mentioned, though without clear authority, as his birthplace; d. at Sleaford, Jan. 25, 1431
Richard Gerard
Confessor; b. about 1635; d. March 11, 1680
Richard Gibbons
Brother of Father John Gibbons
Richard Hill, Venerable
English Martyr, executed at Durham, May 27, 1590
Richard Hurst
Layman and martyr, b. probably at Broughton, near Preston, Lancashire, England, date unknown; d. at Lancaster, August 29, 1628
Richard I
King of England, known as Coeur-de-Lion, b. at Oxford, Sept. 6, 1157; d. at Chaluz, France, April 6, 1199
Richard Lalor Sheil
Dramatist, prose writer, and politician, b. at Drumdowny, County Kilkenny, Ireland, August 17, 1791; d. at Florence, Italy, May 25, 1851
Richard Langhorne, Venerable
English martyr, b. about 1635; d. at Tyburn, July 14, 1679
Richard Langley
Layman and martyr, b. probably at Grimthorpe, York, England, date unknown. at York, Dec. 1, 1586
Richard Leigh, Venerable
English martyr, b. in Cambridgeshire about 1561; d. at Tyburn, August 30, 1588
Richard Malcolm Johnston
Educator, author (1822-1898)
Richard McSherry
Physician; b. at Martinsburg, Va. (now W. Va.), November 21, 1817; d. Baltimore, Md., October 7, 1885
Richard of Cirencester
Chronicler, monk of Westminster, d. about 1400
Richard of Cornwall
Oxford Franciscan, possibly a Master of Arts of that university, dates of his birth and death are unknown
Richard of Ingworth
A Franciscan preacher who flourished about 1225
Richard of Middletown
Franciscan, dates of his birth and death and most incidents of his life are unknown
Richard of St. Victor
Theologian, native of Scotland, but the date and place of his birth are unknown; d. 1173
Richard Risby
Warden of the Observant friary at Canterbury b. in the parish of St. Lawrence, Reading, 1490; executed at Tyburn, London, 20
Richard Rolle de Hampole
Solitary and writer, b. at Thornton, Yorkshire, about 1300; d. at Hampole, Sept. 29, 1349
Richard Russell
Bishop of Vizeu in Portugal, b. in Berkshire, 1630; d. at Vizeu, Nov. 15, 1693
Richard Sampson
Bishop of Chichester and subsequently of Coventry and Lichfield; d. at Eccleshall, Staffordshire, Sept. 25,1554
Richard Sergeant, Venerable
English martyr, executed at Tyburn, April 20, 1586
Richard Shelley
English confessor; d. in Marshalsea prison, London, probably in February or March, 1585-6
Richard Simpson
Convert, linguist, b. 1820; d. near Rome, April 5, 1876
Richard Smith
Took a prominent part in the proceedings against Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer, b. in Worcestershire, 1500; d. at Douai, July 9, 1563
Richard Smith (Bishop of Chalcedon)
Bishop of Chalcedon, second Vicar Apostolic of England; b. at Hanworth, Lincolnshire, Nov., 1568 (not 1566 as commonly stated); d. at Paris, March 18, 1655
Richard Stanyhurst
Catholic controversialist, historian, and devotional writer, b. at Dublin, 1547; d. at Brussels, 1618
Richard Sutton
Co-founder of Brasenose College, Oxford, date of birth unknown; d. September or October, 1524
Richard Thimelby
Missionary priest, b. 1614; d. Jan. 7, 1672
Richard Thirkeld, Blessed
Martyr; b. at Coniscliffe, Durham, England; d. at York, May 29, 1583
Richard Ullerston
B. in the Duchy of Lancaster, England; d. in August or September, 1423
Richard Verstegan
Alias Rowlands, publisher and antiquarian, b. at London, about 1548; d. at Antwerp 1636 (?)
Richard White, Venerable
Martyr, b. at Llanilloes, Montgomeryshire, about 1537; executed at Wrexham, Denbighshire, Oct. 15, 1584
Richard Wilton
D. Dec. 21, 1239. He was a medieval scholar of whom little is known except that he was an Englishman who joined the Trinitarians
Richelieu, Armand-Jean Du Plessis, Cardinal, Duke de
Cardinal and French statesman, b. in Paris, September 5, 1585; d. there December 4, 1642
Richer
Monk of Saint-Remi, student of philosophy, medicine, and mathematics
Ricoldo da Monte di Croce
Professor and missionary, b. at Florence about 1243; d. there October 31, 1320
Right
Designates the object of justice, a moral or legal authority to possess, claim, and use a thing as one's own
Right of Exclusion
Authorized cardinal might, before the decisive ballot, give his veto, in the name of his government, against the election of a cardinal as pope
Right of Option
In canon law an option is a way of obtaining a benefice or a title, by the choice of the new titulary himself.
Right of Presentation
Out of gratitude for the foundation or endowment of churches and benefices, the Church grants founders, if they wish to reserve it, the right of patronage
Right of Voluntary Association
Group of individuals freely united for the pursuit of a common end
Rimbert, Saint
Archbishop of Bremen-Hamburg, d. at Bremen June 11, 888
Rings
History of the wearing of rings
Rita of Cascia, Saint
Exemplar nun, excelled in mortifications, and was widely known for the efficacy of her prayers b. at Rocca Porena in the Diocese of Spoleto, 1386; d. at the Augustinian convent of Cascia, 1456. Feast, May 22
Rites
Defined as the form and manner of any religious observance, detailed article on this subject
Rites in the United States
Detailed article on different rites in the United States
Ritschlianism
Peculiar conception of the nature and scope of Christianity, widely held in modern Protestantism, especially in Germany
Ritual
One of the official books of the Roman Rite
Ritual of Marriage
Liturgial treatment of matrimony
Ritualists
Denotes that advanced section of the High Church party in the Anglican Establishment that has adhered to and developed further the principles of the earlier Tractarian Movement
Robber Council of Ephesus
Question before council was whether St. Flavian had justly deposed and excommunicated the Archimandrite Eutyches for refusing to admit two natures in Christ
Robert Abercromby
A Jesuit missionary in Scotland in the time of the persecutions, b. in 1532; d. at Braunsberg, in Prussia, 27 April, 1613
Robert Anderton, Venerable
English priest and martyr (1560-1586)
Robert Aske
English defender of monasteries at the time of Henry VIII (d. 1537)
Robert Aston Coffin
Ecclesiastical writer and bishop (1819-1885)
Robert Bellarmine, Venerable
Jesuit theologian and cardinal (1542-1621)
Robert Bickerdike, Venerable
English martyr (d. 1585)
Robert Blackburne
English Catholic (d. 1748)
Robert Cenalis
Bishop, historian, and controversialist, b. in Paris, 1483; d. there, 1560
Robert Ciboule
Theologian and moralist (d. 1458)
Robert de Coucy
A medieval French master-builder and son of a master-builder of the same name, b. at Reims (or Coucy, according to some); d. at Reims in 1311
Robert De' Nobili
Jesuit; b. at Montepulciano, Tuscany, September, 1577; d. at Mylapore, India, in 1656
Robert Drury, Venerable
Martyr (1567-1607), one of the appellants against the archpriest Blackwell
Robert Dymoke
Confessor of the Faith, date of birth uncertain; d. at Lincoln, England, Sept. 11, 1580
Robert Fabyan
English chronicler, d. Feb. 28, 1513
Robert Gradwell
English Bishop; b. 1777; d 1791
Robert Grosseteste
Bishop of Lincoln and one of the most learned men of the Middle Ages; b. about 1175; d. October 9, 1253
Robert Guerard
B. 1641; d. January 2, 1715
Robert Guiscard
Duke of Apulia and Calabria, founder of the Norman state of the Two Sicilies; b. about 1016; d. July 17, 1085
Robert Henryson
Scottish poet, b. probably 1420-1430; d. about 1500
Robert Isaac Wilberforce
B. at Clapham, Dec. 19, 1802; d. at Albano, near Rome, Feb. 3, 1857. He was the second son of William Wilberforce, and a younger brother of Samuel Wilberforce, Anglican Bishop of Oxford
Robert Joseph Pothier
A celebrated French lawyer, b. at Orleans, January 9, 1699; d. there, March 2, 1772
Robert Kilwardby
Archbishop of Canterbury, Cardinal-Bishop of Porto and Santa Rufina (d. 1279)
Robert Mannyng
Medieval poet
Robert Morton, Venerable
English priest and martyr, b. at Bawtry, Yorks, about 1548; executed in Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, Wednesday, August 28, 1588
Robert Nanteuil
French engraver and crayonist, b. at Reims, 1623 (1626, or 1630); d. at Paris, 1678
Robert Nutter, Venerable
English martyr; b. at Burnley, Lancashire, c. 1550; executed at Lancaster, July 26, 1600
Robert of Arbrissel
Itinerant preacher, founder of Fontevrault, B. C. 1047 at Arbrissel near Rhetiers, Brittany; d. at Orsan, probably 1117
Robert of Courçon
Cardinal, b. at Kedleston England; d. at Damietta, 1218
Robert of Geneva
Antipope under the name of Clement VII, b. at Geneva, 1342; d. at Avignon, Sept. 16, 1394
Robert of Jumieges
Archbishop of Canterbury, d. probably on May 26, 1055
Robert of Luzarches
Architect, connected with building the cathedral of Notre Dame, b. towards the end of the twelfth century
Robert of Melun
English philosopher and theologian, b. in England about 1100; d. at Hereford, 1167
Robert of Molesme, Saint
Founded a monastery at Molesme, b. about the year 1029, at Champagne, France, d. at Molesme, April 17, 1111
Robert of Newminster, Saint
Benedictine priest, b. in the district of Craven, Yorkshire, d. June 7, 1159
Robert Persons
Jesuit, b. at Nether Stowey, Somerset, June 24, 1546; d. in Rome, April 15, 1610
Robert Phillip
Priest, d. at Paris, Jan. 4, 1647
Robert Plowden
Jesuit; elder brother of Charles (supra), b. Jan. 27, 1740; d. at Wappenbury, June 27, 1823
Robert Pullen
English Cardinal; Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church; died circa 1147
Robert Pullus
Cardinal, English philosopher and theologian, of the twelfth century, b. in England about 1080; d. 1147-50
Robert Southwell, Venerable
Poet, Jesuit, martyr, b. at Horsham St. Faith's, Norfolk, England, in 1561
Robert Stephen Hawker
Poet and antiquary; b. at Plymouth December 3, 1803; d. there 15 August, 1875
Robert Sutton
Priest, martyr, d. July 27, 1587
Robert Thorpe
Priest and martyr, suffered May 15, 1591
Robert Wace
Poet, b. at Jersey, about 1100; d. Bayeux, 1174
Robert Walsh
Publicist, diplomat, b. at Baltimore, Md., 1785; d. at Paris, Feb. 7, 1859
Robert White
English composer, b. about 1530; d. Nov., 1574
Robert Whitty
B. at Pouldarrig near Oylgate, January 7, 1817; d. September 1, 1895
Robert Wilcox, Venerable
English martyr, b. at Chester, 1558; suffered at Canterbury, October 1, 1588
Robert, Saint
Founder of the Abbey of Chaise-Dieu in Auvergne, b. at Aurillac, Auvergne, about 1000; d. in Auvergne, 1067
Rocamadour
Communal chief town of the canton of Gramat, district of Gourdon
Roch, Saint
Embarked on a pilgrimage to help the plague-stricken, miraculous cures followed, b. at Montpellier towards 1295; d.1327
Roch-Amboise-Auguste Bebian
Devoted to the study of the system of education of the deaf and dumb; b.August 4, 1789 at Pointe-a-Pitre, Guadeloupe; d. there February 24, 1839
Rochet
Over-tunic usually made of fine white linen, and reaching to the knees
Rococo Style
Designates the whimsical fashion of the shellwork style as opposed to the succeeding more simple styles
Rodriguez Sanchez de Arevalo
Spanish bishop (1404-1470)
Rogation Days
Days of prayer, instituted by the Church, to ask protection in calamities, and to obtain a good and bountiful harvest
Roger
Priest and consecrated Bishop of Worcester, d. at Tours, August 9, 1179
Roger Anderton
Catholic layman (d. 1640)
Roger Ashton, Venerable
Martyred for his faithfulness to Rome (d. 1592)
Roger Bacon
Philosopher, b. at Ilchester, Somersetshire, about 1214; d. at Oxford, perhaps June 11, 1294
Roger Brooke Taney
Fifth chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, b. March 17, 1777; d. October 12, 1864
Roger Cadwallador, Venerable
English martyr, b. at Stretton Sugwas, near Hereford, in 1568; executed at Leominster, Aug. 27, 1610
Roger of Hoveden
Chronicler, b. unknown, d. around 1201
Roger of Wendover
Benedictine monk, first of the great chroniclers of St. Albans Abbey, date of birth unknown; d. 1236
Roger William Vaughan
Second Archbishop of Sydney, b. at Courtfield, Herefordshire, January 9, 1834; d. at Ince-Blundell Hall, Lancashire, August 17, 1883
Rogier Van Der Weyden
Painter, b. at Tournai, 1399 or 1400; d. at Brussels, 1464
Rohault de Fleury
Family of French architects and archaeologists of the nineteenth century
Rolduc
Augustinian abbey in the Netherlands
Rolls Series
Collection of historical materials of which the general scope is indicated by its official title
Roman Academies
Major learning centers beginning with the Italian Renaissance
Roman Breviary, Reform of the
By the Apostolical Constitution 'Divino Afilatu' of Pius X (November 1, 1911), a change was made in the psalter of the Roman Breviary
Roman Catacombs
Treatment of the catacombs in Rome
Roman Catechism
Differs from other summaries of Christian doctrine for the instruction of the people in two points: intended for priests having care of souls, and it enjoys an authority equalled by no other catechism
Roman Catholic
Qualification of the name Catholic commonly used in English-speaking countries by those unwilling to recognize the claims of the One True Church
Roman Catholic Relief Bill
History of this bill in England and Ireland
Roman Colleges (supplement)
Supplemental information from the Index volume
Roman Colleges, The
Article treats of the various colleges in Rome which have been founded under ecclesiastical auspices and are under ecclesiastical direction
Roman Congregations
Certain departments that have been organized by the Holy See at various times to assist it in the transaction of those affairs which canonical discipline and the individual interests of the faithful bring to Rome
Roman Curia
Departments or ministries which assist the sovereign pontiff in the government of the Universal Church
Roman Emperor Gratian
Son of Valentinian I; b. 359; d. 383
Roman Hinderer
A German missionary in China, b. Sept. 21, 1668; d. Aug. 24, 1744
Roman Historical Institutes
Collegiate bodies established at Rome for purposes of historical research
Roman Law
Principles and history of Roman law
Roman Processional
Strictly speaking it might be said that the Processional has no recognized place in the Roman series of liturgical books.
Roman Rite
Manner of celebrating the Holy Sacrifice, administering Sacraments, reciting the Divine Office, and performing other ecclesiastical functions as used in the city and Diocese of Rome
Roman Sebastian Zangerle
Prince-Bishop of Seckau, b. at Ober-Kirchberg near Ulm, Jan. 20, 1771; d. at Seckau, April 27, 1848
Romanos, Saint
Poet of the sixth century
Romanus, Saints
Information on saints of the same name
Rome
Significance of Rome lies primarily in the fact that it is the city of the pope
Romuald, Saint
Founded monasteries and hermitages, b. at Ravenna, probably about 950; d. at Val-di-Castro, June 19, 1027
Romulus Augustulus
Deposed in the year 476, the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire
Ronan, Saint
Abbot of Drumshallon, d. November 18, 665
Rood
Term often used to signify the True Cross itself
Rorate Coeli
The opening words of Isaiah 45:8 used frequently during Advent in the Mass and Divine Office
Rosalia, Saint
Hermitess, no account of date of birth or death, though churches were dedicated in her honour in 1237
Rosary
History of the Rosary
Roscelin
Eleventh-century monk who was bought before a council at Soissons (1093), where he was accused of Tritheism
Roscommon
Capital of County Roscommon, Ireland
Rose of Lima, Saint
Virgin, patroness of America, b. at Lima, Peru, April 20, 1586; d. there August 30, 1617
Rose of Viterbo, Saint
Virgin, b. at Viterbo, 1235; d. March 6, 1252
Rose Whitty
B. at Dublin, Ireland, November 24, 1831; d. May 4, 1911
Rose Window
A circular window, with mullions and traceries generally radiating from the center, and filled with stained glasses.
Rosea
Titular see of Rosea in Syria
Roseline, Saint (Rossolina)
Carthusian nun at Bertaud in the Alps of Dauphine, b. at the Chateau of Arcs in eastern Provence, 1263; d. January 17, 1329
Rosicrucians
Original appellation of the alleged members of the occult-cabalistic-theosophic Rosicrucian Brotherhood
Rosmini and Rosminianism
Antonio Rosmini-Serbati, philosopher, and founder of the Institute of Charity, b. March 24, 1797, at Rovereto, Austrian Tyrol; d. July 1, 1855, at Stresa, Italy
Rosminians
Institute of Charity, or, officially, Societas a charitate nuncupata, is a religious congregation founded by Antonio Rosmini
Rotuli
Rolls, in which a long narrow strip of papyrus or parchment, written on one side, was wound like a blind about its staff, formed the earliest kind of volume (volumen from volvere, to roll up) of which we have knowledge
Royal Declaration
Name most commonly given to the solemn repudiation of Catholicity, every sovereign succeeding to the throne of Great Britain was, until quite recently, required to make in the presence of the assembled Lords and Commons
Royal Veto, The
In the appointment of Bishops in Ireland and England
Ruadhan, Saint
One of the twelve Apostles of Erin (q.v.); d. at the monastery of Lorrha in Ireland
Ruben
Proper name which designates in the Bible, a patriarch and a tribe of Israel
Rubrics
Consecrated term for the rules concerning Divine service or the administration of the sacraments
Rudolf of Fulda
Chronicler, d. at Fulda, March 8, 862
Rudolf of Habsburg
German king, b. May 1, 1218; d. at Speyer, July 15, 1291
Rudolf of Rüdesheim
Bishop of Breslau, b. at Rudesheimon the Rhine, about 1402; d. at Breslau in Jan., 1482
Rudolf von Ems
Middle High German epic poet of the thirteenth century
Rudolph Agricola
Humanist and classicist, b. in 1442, or 1443
Rudolph von Langen
Humanist and divine, b. 1438 or 1439; d. at Munster, Dec. 25, 1519
Rudolph William Basil Feilding
Eighth Earl of Denbigh, and ninth Earl of Desmond, b. April 9, 1823; d. 1892
Rufford Abbey
Monastery of the Cistercian Order
Rufina, Saints
Roman Martyrology record of saints of this name
Rufinus Tyrannius
Writer and translator, b. about 345, probably at Concordia in Italy (Jerome, Ep. ii, 2); d. in Sicily about 410
Rufinus, Saint
Listing of eleven saints named Rufinus
Rufus, Saints
Listing of eleven saints named Rufus
Ruggiero Giovanelli
Italian composer, b. 1560, d. 1625
Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich
Jesuit, mathematician, astronomer, philosopher (1711-1787)
Rule of Faith, The
The word rule (Lat. regula, by Gr. kanon) means a standard by which something can the be tested, and the rule of faith means something extrinsic to our faith, and serving as its norm or measure
Rule of Saint Augustine
Listing of the five documents that applied to the Rule
Rule of Saint Basil
History of the monastic Rule of St. Basil
Rule of Saint Benedict
Monastic rule written by Saint Benedict
Rule of Saint Francis
As known, St. Francis founded three orders and gave each of them a special rule. Here only the rule of the first order is to be considered, i.e. that of the Friars Minor
Rumania
Kingdom in the Balkan Peninsula
Rupert, Saint
First Bishop of Salzburg, date of birth unknown; d. at Salzburg, Easter Sunday, March 27, 718
Rusaddir
Titular see of Mauritania Tingitana
Rusicade
Titular see of Numidia
Ruspe
Titular see of Byzacena in Africa
Russia
Comprises the greater part of Eastern Europe, and a third of Asia; its area is one-sixth of the land surface of the globe
Rusticus of Narbonne, Saint
Bishop of Narbonne, b. either at Marseilles or at Narbonnaise, Gaul; d. Oct. 26, 461
Ruthenian Rite
Article on the modifications which the Ruthenians have introduced in the Byzantine or Greek Rit
Ruthenians
Slavic people from Southern Russia, Galicia and Bukowina in Austria, and North-eastern Hungary
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