Catholic Answers

C

C. Vettius Aquilinus Juvencus
Christian Latin poet (fourth century)
Cabasa
Titular see of Egypt
Cadalous
Bishop of Parma and antipope, b. in the territory of Verona of noble parentage; d. at Parma, 1072
Caddo Indians
Group of tribes formerly in Western Louisiana and Eastern Texas
Cades
Name of three, or probably four cities mentioned in Scripture
Caedmon, Saint
Author of Biblical poems in Anglo-Saxon, date of birth unknown; d. between 670 and 680
Caeremoniale Episcoporum
Book containing the rites and ceremonies to be observed at Mass, Vespers, and other functions, by bishops
Caesar of Speyer
Friar Minor, first minister provincial of the order in Germany, and leader of the Caesarines, b. towards the close of the twelfth century; d. in 1239
Caesar Sportelli, Venerable
Lawyer, priest, b. at Nola in Bari, Italy, March 29, 1702; d. at Pagani, April 19, 1750
Caesarea
Latin titular see
Caesarea Mauretaniae
Titular see of North Africa
Caesarea Palaestinae
Titular see of Palestine
Caesarea Philippi
Greek Catholic residential see, and Latin titular see, in Syria
Caesarius of Arles, Saint
Bishop, administrator, preacher, theologian, b. at Chalons in Burgundy, 470-71, d. at Arles, August 27, 543
Caesarius of Heisterbach
Pious and learned monk of the Cistercian monastery of Heisterbach near Bonn, b. about 1170 at or near Cologne; d. about 1240
Caesarius of Nazianzus, Saint
Physician, younger and only brother of Gregory of Nazianzus, b. probably c. 330 at Arianzus, near Nazianzus; d. at the end of 368 or the beginning of 369
Caesarius of Prum
Abbot of the Benedictine monastery near Trier, then a Cistercian monk at Heisterbach near Bonn, lived in the latter half of the 12th and first half of 13th century
Caesaropolis
A titular see of Macedonia
Cain
First-born of Adam and Eve
Cainites
Name used for (1) the descendants of Cain, (2) a sect of Gnostics and Antinomians
Caiphas
High-Priest of the Jews appointed by the Roman procurator Valerlus Gratus
Caius
A Christian author who lived about the beginning of the third century
Caius Julius Verus Maximinus Thrax
Roman Emperor; son of a Goth and an Alanic mother
Caius Marius Victorinus
A fourth-century grammarian, rhetorician, philosopher, and theologian, b. in Africa about the year 300
Caius Valerius Daja Maximinus
Imperial political figure in the 300s
Cajetan Bedini
Italian cardinal and diplomat (1806-1864)
Cajetan, Saint
Founder of the Theatines, b. Oct., 1480 at Vicenza in Venetian territory; d. at Naples in 1547
Calama
A titular see of Africa
Calas Case
Criminal case in France
Caleb
Name of several figures in the Bible
California
Largest of the Pacific Coast States in the U.S.
California Missions
California Missions
Callinicus
A titular see, of Asia Minor
Callipolis
A titular see of Thrace, now called Gallipoli
Caloe
A titular see of Asia Minor
Calumny
Unjust damage to another's good name
Calvert
Various personages important in English and American history during the 17th century
Calvinism
System of theological thought stemming from John Calvin
Calynda
A titular see of Asia Minor
Camachus
A titular see of Armenia
Camaldolese
Joint order of hermits and cenobites, founded by St. Romuald at the beginning of the eleventh century
Cambysopolis
A titular see of Asia Minor
Camerlengo
The title of certain papal officials
Camille Lefebvre
Apostle of the Acadians, b. at St. Philippe, P. Q., 1831; d. at St. Joseph, N. B., 1895
Camillo Almici
Priest of the Congregation of the Oratory, b. 2 November, 1714; d. 30 December, 1779
Camillo Mazzella
Theologian and cardinal, b. at Vitulano, Feb. 10, 1833; d. at Rome, March 26, 1900
Camillus de Lellis, Saint
B. at Bacchianico, Naples, 1550; d. at Rome, July 14, 1614
Camillus Tarquini
Cardinal, Jesuit canonist and archaeologist, b. Sept. 27, 1810; d. Feb. 15, 1874
Camisards
A. sect of French fanatics who terrorized Dauphine, Vivarais, and chiefly the Cevennes in the beginning of the eighteenth century
Campo Santo de' Tedeschi
A cemetery, church, and hospice for Germans on the south side of St. Peter's, Rome
Cana
A city of Galilee
Canada
Part of North America north of the United States
Canary Islands
Archipelago in the North Atlantic Ocean facing the western coast of Africa
Canatha
A titular see of Arabia
Candace
Name of the Ethiopian queen whose eunuch was baptized by St. Philip (Acts, viii, 27 sqq.)
Candidus
The name of two scholars of the Carlovingian revival of letters in the ninth century
Candlemas
Purification of the Blessed Virgin (Gr. Hupapante), feast of the presentation of Christ in the temple, February 2
Candles
Treatment of the religious use of candles
Candlesticks
Treatment of the religious use of candlesticks
Canea
Formerly a titular see of Crete
Canice, Saint
Commemorated on October 11, b. in 515 or 516, at Glengiven, in what is now County Derry, Ireland; d. at Aghaboe in 600
Canon (music)
In music, the strictest of all contrapuntal forms
Canon (person)
A member of a chapter or body of clerics living according to rule and presided over by one of their number
Canon Law
Body of laws and regulations made by or adopted by ecclesiastical authority, for the government of the Christian organization and its members
Canon of the Holy Scriptures
Authoritative collection of sacred writings
Canon of the Mass
Fundamental part of the Mass that comes after the Offertory and before the Communion
Canoness
The female equivalent of canon (person)
Canonesses Regular of the Holy Sepulchre
Group dating from at least the thirteenth century
Canonical Acts
Canonical records, decrees, reports, certificates, etc.
Canonical Admonitions
Preliminary means used by the Church towards a suspected person, as a preventive of harm or a remedy of evil
Canonical Adoption
Act by which a person, with the cooperation of the public authority, selects for his child one who does not belong to him
Canonical Age
Treatment of how a person's chronological age affected his status in canon law prior to the 1983 Code of Canon Law
Canonical Erection of a Monastery
Conditions for the legitimate erection of a monastery
Canonical Faculties
In law, a faculty is the authority, privilege, or permission, to perform an act or function
Canonical Hours
Fixed portions of the Divine Office which the Church appoints to be recited at the different hours
Canonical Impediments
Treatment of the concept of impediments in canon law
Canonical inquisition
Extra-judicial or judicial investigations
Canonical Institution
Any manner, in accordance with canon law, of acquiring an ecclesiastical benefice
Canonical investiture
The act by which a suzerain granted a fief to his vassal, and the ceremonies which accompanied that grant
Canonical Precept
In its common acceptation, is opposed to counsel, inasmuch as the former imposes an obligation, while the latter is a persuasion
Canonical Provision
Regular induction into a benefice, comprising three distinct acts--the designation of the person, canonical institution, and installation
Canonical Visitation
The act of an ecclesiastical superior who in the discharge of his office visits persons or places with a view of maintaining faith and discipline, and of correcting abuses by the application of proper remedies
Canons and Canonesses Regular
Religious clerics
Canons On Hunting
Treatment of canon law regarding hunting
Canons Regular of the Immaculate Conception
A congregation founded in the department of Isere, at Saint-Antoine, France
Canopus
A titular see of Egypt
Canopy
Ornamental covering of cloth, stone, wood, or metal, used to crown an altar
Canossa
Castle in Italy
Cantate Sunday
A name given to the fourth Sunday after Easter
Canticle
Sacred song, particularly those in Scripture
Canticle of Canticles
One of the three books of Solomon in the Old Testament
Cantor
The chief singer (and sometimes instructor) of the ecclesiastical choir
Canute
King of the English, Danes, and Norwegians, b. about 994; d. at Shaftesbury, November 12, 1035
Canute IV, Saint
Martyr and King of Denmark, date of birth uncertain; d. July 10, 1086
Capharnaum
A titular see of Palestine. It is frequently mentioned in the Gospels
Capital Punishment
The infliction by due legal process of the penalty of death as a punishment for crime
Capitolias
A titular see of Palestine
Capitularies
Collections of laws or ordinances, chiefly of the Frankish kings
Capsa
A titular see of North Africa
Captain
Both civil and military officers in the Bible
Captivities of the Israelites
Treatment of when the Israelite nation was subject to other nations and deported
Capuchin Friars Minor
An autonomous branch of the first Franciscan Order
Capuchinesses
A branch of the Poor Clares of the Primitive Observance
Capuciati
Name of two groups known for wearing hoods
Caracalla
Roman Emperor, b. 188; d. 217
Caraites
A Jewish sect professing to follow the text of the Bible (Miqra') to the exclusion of Rabbinical traditions
Carbonari
Secret political society in France and Italy
Cardica
A titular see of Thessaly
Cardinal
A dignitary of the Roman Church and counsellor of the pope
Cardinal Giacomo Antonelli
Secretary of State to Pius IX (1806-1876)
Cardinal Gian Matteo Giberti
Bishop of Verona; b. 1495; d. 1543
Cardinal Jean-Francois-Paul-Gondi de Retz
Archbishop of Paris, b. at the Chateau of Montmirail, Oct., 1614; d. in Paris, Aug. 24, 1679
Cardinal Leonardo Antonelli
Canon of the Vatican Basilica, prefect of archives in the Castle of San Angelo, Secretary of the Sacred College and Assessor of the Holy Office (1730-1811)
Cardinal Nicolo Maria Antonelli
Canonist, ecclesiastical historian, and Orientalist (1698-1767)
Cardinal Protector
Representative in the Roman curia of religious order or institute, confraternity, church, college, city, or nation
Cardinal Silvio Antoniano
Writer on education (1540-1603)
Cardinal Vicar
The vicar-general of the pope, as Bishop of Rome, for the spiritual administration of the city and its surrounding district
Cardinal Vicar (organization of the Roman vicariate)
The organization of the Roman vicariate, as described in an earlier volume of this Encyclopedia (see [[Cardinal Vicar]], III, 341) rested largely on usage; it was not constructed as a compact whole at one single time
Cardinal Virtues
The four principal virtues upon which the rest of the moral virtues turn or are hinged
Care of Poor By the Church
The care of the poor is a branch of charity.
Carem
Town in the Tribe of Judah
Caribs
Indian tribe in South America
Carl von Reisach
B. at Roth, Bavaria, July 7, 1800; d. in the Redemptorist monastery of Contamine, France, December 22, 1869
Carlo Carlo Goldoni
Italian dramatist; b. 1707; d. 1793
Carlo Crivelli
An Italian painter. Little is known of his life, and his b. and d. are usually reckoned by his earliest and latest signed pictures, 1468-93
Carlo Dolci
Painter, b. in Florence, Italy, May 25, 1616; d. 17. January, 1686
Carlo Fontana
Architect and writer; b. at Bruciato, near Como, 1634; d. at Rome, 1714
Carlo Giuseppe Imbonati
Cistercian of the Reform of St. Bernard, orientalist, biographer, theologian; b. at Milan; flourished in the latter half of the seventeenth century
Carlo Gozzi
Italian author, b. 1720; d. 1806.
Carlo Maderna
Architect, b. 1556; d. 1629
Carlo Maratta
Italian painter, b. May 13, 1625; d. December 15, 1713
Carlo Matteucci
Physicist, b. June 21, 1811; d. July 25, 1868
Carlo Odescalchi
Cardinal, prince, archbishop, and Jesuit, b. at Rome, March 5, 1786; d. at Modena, August 17, 1841
Carlo Ottavio Castiglione
Philologist and numismatist, b. of an ancient family, at Milan, Italy, 1784; d. at Genoa, April 10, 1849
Carlo Passaglia
Jesuit b. at Lucca, May 9, 1812; d. at Turin, March 12, 1887
Carlo Porta
Poet, b. at Milan in 1775; d. there, January 5, 1821; educated by the Jesuits at Monza and in the seminary at Milan
Carlo Sebastiano Berardi
Canonist (1719-1768)
Carlo Vercellone
Biblical scholar, b. at Biella, Milan; d. at Rome, Jan. 19, 1869
Carlos Maria Bustamante
Mexican statesman and historian, b. at Oaxaca, Mexico, November 4, 1774; d. in Mexico, September 29, 1848
Carlovingian Schools
A school for the training of the young Frankish nobles in the art of war and ceremonies of the court
Carmel
Place in Israel
Carmelite Order
One of the mendicant orders
Caroline Books
Work purporting to be the composition of Charlemagne
Caroline Islands
A group of about 500 small coral islands, east of the Philippines
Carpasia
A titular see of Cyprus
Carrhae
A titular see of Mesopotamia
Carthage, Saint
Born about the year 555
Carthusian Order
Enclosed religious order
Carystus
A titular see of Greece
Cashel
A town in the County Tipperary, Ireland
Casimir Pulaski
Patriot and soldier, b. at Winiary, Poland, March 4, 1748; d. on the Wasp, in the harbour of Savannah, Oct. 11, 1779
Casimir Ubaghs
B. at Berg lez-Fauquemont, Nov. 26, 1800; d. at Louvain, Feb. 15, 1875, was for a quarter of a century the chief protagonist of the Ontologico-Traditionalist School of Louvain
Casimir, Saint
Prince of Poland, b. in the royal palace at Cracow, October 3, 1458; d. at the court of Grodno, March 4, 1484
Casium
A titular see of Lower Egypt
Casot
B. in Liege, Belgium, 4 Oct., 1728; d. at Quebec, March 16, 1800
Caspar Castner
A missionary, b. at Munich, Bavaria, October 7, 1655; d. at Peking, China, November 9, 1709
Caspar Henry Borgess
Bishop of Detroit, Michigan, USA (1824-1890)
Caspar Hurtado
A Spanish Jesuit and theologian, b. at Mondejar, New Castile, in 1575; d. at Alcala, August 5, 1647
Caspar Riffel
Historian, born at Budesheim, Bingen, Germany, Jan. 19, 1807; died at Mainz, Dec. 15, 1856
Caspar Schatzgeyer
Opponent of the Protestant Reformers (ca. 1463-1527)
Cassiodorus
Roman writer, statesman, and monk, b. about 490; d. about 583
Castabala
A titular see of Asia Minor
Castile and Aragon
The United Kingdom which came into existence by the marriage (1469) of Isabella, heiress of Castile, with Ferdinand the Catholic, King of Aragon
Casto Innocenzio Ansaldi
Dominican theologian and archaeologist (1710-1780)
Castoria
A titular see of Macedonia
Casuistry
The application of general principles of morality to definite and concrete cases of human activity
Catafalque
In liturgy, a cenotaph-like erection which is used at the exequial offices of the Church
Catalonia
A principality within the Spanish Monarchy
Catechumen
One who has not yet been baptized, but is undergoing a course of preparation
Categorical Imperative
A term in Immanuel Kant's ethics
Category
Term used in philosophy
Catenae
Collections of excerpts from the writings of Biblical commentators, especially the Fathers and early ecclesiastical writers
Cathari
Name applied to several groups in history
Cathedra
The chair or throne of a bishop in his cathedral church, also used in several other senses
Cathedral
The chief church of a diocese, in which the bishop has his throne (cathedra)
Cathedraticum
A certain sum of money to be contributed annually for the support of the bishop
Catherine de' Medici
B. April 13, 1519; d. 5 Jan., 1589
Catherine de' Ricci, Saint
A Dominican nun, of the Third Order, though enclosed, b. in Florence, April 23, 1522; d. February 2, 1590
Catherine of Alexandria, Saint
Virgin and martyr
Catherine of Bologna, Saint
Poor Clare and mystical writer, b. at Bologna, September 8, 1413; d. there, March 9, 1463
Catherine of Genoa, Saint
B. at Genoa in 1447, d. at the same place 14 Sept., 1510
Catherine of Siena, Saint
Dominican Tertiary, b. at Siena, March 25, 1347; d. at Rome, April 29, 1380
Catherine of Sweden, Saint
The fourth child of St. Bridget and her husband, Ulf Gudmarsson, b. 1331 or 1332; d. March 24, 1381
Catherine Tegakwitha
Indian virgin of the Mohawk tribe, b. in 1656; d. April 17, 1680
Catholic
Origin and use of the term
Catholic Benevolent Legion
A fraternal assessment life-insurance society organized in Brooklyn, New York
Catholic Church Extension Society
First active agitation for a church extension or home mission society for the Catholic Church in North America
Catholic Club of New York
Social organization consisting of 'Catholic gentlemen who are governed by a spirit of devotion to the Church and fidelity to the Holy Father'
Catholic Congresses
Gatherings of Catholics in general public conferences
Catholic Directories
The ecclesiastical sense of the word directory, as will be shown later, has become curiously confused with its secular use, but historically speaking the ecclesiastical sense is the earlier
Catholic Dukes of Norfolk (since the Reformation)
Under this title are accounts only of the prominent Catholic Dukes of Norfolk since the Reformation
Catholic Educational Association
Volunteer organization of Catholic educators and other persons who have an interest in the welfare of Catholic education in the United States
Catholic Epistle
The name given to certain epistles in the New Testament
Catholic Indian Missions of Canada
Detailed article on the history of missionary activity to various Indian tribes in Canada
Catholic Indian Missions of the United States
Detailed history of Catholic missionary activity to the native tribes of America
Catholic Knights of America
A fraternal life-insurance company
Catholic Missionary Union
Missionary organization
Catholic Missions
Short general survey of the missionary activity of the Catholic Church at the present day
Catholic Orders of Foresters
In Illinois and Massachusetts
Catholic Parochial Missions
Special exertions of the Church's pastoral agencies to instruct Catholics more fully in the truths of their religion, and to convert sinners
Catholic Periodical Literature
Catholic publications appearing at intervals either regular or irregular
Catholic Societies
Various organizations formed by the faithful for the promotion of any good work
Catholic Summer Schools
Assemblies of Catholic clergy and laity held during the summer months to foster intellectual culture in harmony with Christian faith
Catholic Truth Societies
Various organizations in different countries for promoting particular aspects of Catholicism
Catholic University of America
A pontifical institution located at Washington, D.C.
Catholic Young Men's National Union
Association was organized for the furtherance of practical unity, the spiritual, intellectual, moral, and physical advancement of Catholic youth, and the development of better citizens and Catholics
Catholicos
Ecclesiastical title of the Nestorian and Armenian patriarchs
Caughnawaga
Iroquois reservation, about ten miles above Montreal
Caunus
Titular see of Asia Minor
Cause
Term in philosophy
Cavaliere Giovanni Baglioni
Painter of distinction
Cavaliere Paris Bordone
Venetian painter (1500-1570)
Ceadda, Saint
Abbot of Lastingham, Bishop successively of York and Lichfield, England, date of birth uncertain; d. 672
Cecilia, Saint
Virgin and martyr, patroness of church music, d. at Rome
Cedar (conifer)
A coniferous tree frequently mentioned in the Bible
Cedar (son of Ismael)
The name of the second son of Ismael
Cedd, Saint
Bishop of the East Saxons, the brother of St. Ceadda; d. 26 Oct., 664
Cedes
Two cities of Palestine
Celebret
A letter which a bishop gives to a priest, that he may obtain permission in another diocese to say Mass
Celenderis
A titular see of Asia Minor
Celestin-Joseph Felix
French Jesuit, b. at Neuville-sur-l'Escaut (Nord), June 28, 1810; d. at Lille, July 7, 1891
Celestine Order
This Benedictine congregation must not be confused with the Franciscan congregation of the same name. The order was founded in 1254 by Pietro di Murrone
Celestines
Name given to certain extreme 'Spiritual' Franciscans of the Marches, because they were taken by Celestine V under his special protection
Celestino Cavedoni
An Italian ecclesiastic, archaeologist, and numismatist; b. May 18, 1795, at Levizzano-Rangone, near Modena; d. November 26, 1865, at Modena
Celestino Sfondrati
Prince-abbot of St. Gall and cardinal, b. at Milan, January 10, 1644; d. at Rome, September 4, 1696
Celibacy of the Clergy
Treatment of the practice of clerical celibacy
Cella
One of the names by which the small memorial chapels sometimes erected in the Christian cemeteries of the first age were known
Celsus the Platonist
An eclectic Platonist and polemical writer against Christianity, who flourished towards the end of the second century
Celtic Rite
Term applied to the various rites in use in Great Britain, Ireland, perhaps in Brittany, and sporadically in Northern Spain,
Cemetery
Cemetery
Cenni di Pepo Cimabue
Florentine painter (1240-after 1301)
Censer
A vessel suspended by chains, and used for burning incense at solemn Mass
Censorship of Books
Historical treatment of censorship
Census
A canonical term variously defined by different writers
Center Party (The Centre)
This name is given to a political party in the German Reichstag and to a number of parties in the diets of the various states of the German Empire
Centuriators of Magdeburg
Group of Lutheran scholars
Centurion
A Roman officer commanding a century or company
Ceolfrid, Saint
Benedictine monk, Abbot of Wearmouth and Jarrow, b. 642, place of birth not known; d. 29 Sept., 716, at Langres
Ceolwulf
King of Northumbria and monk of Lindisfarne, date and place of birth not known; d. at Lindisfarne, 764
Ceramus
A titular see of Asia Minor
Cerasus
A titular see of Pontus Polemoniacus in Asia Minor
Ceremonial
The book which contains in detail the order of religious ceremony and solemn worship
Ceremony
In liturgy an external action, gesture, or movement which accompanies the prayers and public exercise of divine worship
Cerinthus
A Gnostic-Ebionite heretic, contemporary with St. John
Certitude
State of mind and a quality of a proposition
Cesar Clement (Caesar)
Priest (d. 1626)
Cesar de Bus, Venerable
Priest, and founder of two religious congregations, b. February 3, 1544, at Cavailion, Corntat Venaissin (now France); d. April 15, 1607, at Avignon
Cesar-Egasse du Boulay
French historian (d. 1678)
Cesar-Guillaume La Luzerne
French cardinal, b. at Paris, 1738; d. there, 1821
Cesar-Mansuete Despretz
Chemist and physicist, b. at Lessines, Belgium, May 11, 1798; d. at Paris, May 11, 1863
Cesare Baronius, Venerable
Cardinal and ecclesiastical historian (1538-1607)
Cesare Cantu
Italian historian and poet, b. at Brivio, December 8, 1807; d. at Milan, March 11, 1895
Ceslaus, Saint
B. at Kamien in Silesia, Poland (now Prussia), about 1184; d. at Breslau about 1242
Cestra
A titular see of Asia Minor
Ceylon
Island to the south-east of India
Chair of Peter
I. The annual Feast of the Chair of Peter; II. The Chair itself
Chalcedon
Titular see of Asia Minor
Chalcis
Titular see of Greece
Chaldean Christians
Former Nestorians now reunited with the Roman Church
Chalice
Occupies first place among sacred vessels; as a figure of speech the cup is often used as if it were synonymous with the Precious Blood itself
Cham (Chamites)
Son of Noe and progenitor of one of the three great races of men whose ethnographical table is given by Genesis 10
Chanaan (Chanaanites)
Hebrew word Kena'an denoting a person
Chancel
Part of the choir near the altar of a church, where the deacons or sub-deacons stand to assist the officiating priest
Chantry
Endowment to say or sing Mass for the soul of the endower; more commonly, to perform as choir member, chaplain in hospitals and jails, etc.
Chapel
Place of Christian worship
Chaplain
The office in its many forms
Chapter
Certain corporate ecclesiastical bodies
Chapter and Conventual Mass
Types of Masses said in churches or cathedrals
Chapter House
Building attached to a monastery or cathedral in which the meetings of the chapter are held
Character
Commonly, the expression of the personality of a human being, as revealed in his conduct
Character (in Catholic theology)
Special effect produced by three of the sacraments, viz. Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy orders
Charadrus
Titular see of Asia Minor
Chariopolis
Titular see of Thrace
Charismata
Any good gift that flows from God's benevolent love (charis) unto man
Charitable Bequests
In civil law
Charity and Charities
Love of God as well as love of man
Charlemagne
Charles, King of the Franks; first sovereign of the Christian Empire of the West (742-814)
Charles Antoniewicz (Botoz)
Polish Jesuit and missionary (1807-1852)
Charles Baker, Venerable
English Jesuit martyr (1616-1679)
Charles Batteux
Abbe and writer on philosophy and aesthetics (1713-1780)
Charles Berington
Bishop of Hiero-Caesarea (1748-1798)
Charles Bianconi
Merchant and philanthropist (1785-1875)
Charles Bonaparte
Ornithologist (1803-1857)
Charles Borromeo, Saint
Archbishop of Milan, Papal Secretary of State under Pius IV; one of the chief players in the Catholic Counter-Reformation (1538-1584)
Charles Butler
Prominent figure among the English Catholics of his day, b. in London, 1750; d. June 2, 1832
Charles Cahier
Antiquarian, b. at Paris, 26 Feb., 1807; d. there 26 Feb., 1882
Charles Carroll
American statesman, b. at Annapolis, Maryland, September 19, 1737, d. at Doughoregan Manor near Baltimore, Maryland, November 14, 1832
Charles Clemencet
Benedictine historian (1703-1778)
Charles Constantine Pise
A priest, poet, and prose writer, b. at Annapolis, Maryland, Nov. 22, 1801; d. at Brooklyn, New York, May 26, 1866
Charles Cordell
English missionary priest (1720-1791)
Charles D'Agoult
French prelate, b. at Grenoble, 1747; d. at Paris, 1824
Charles Daniel
Jesuit; b. Dec. 31, 1818, at Beauvais, France; d. Jan. 1, 1893, at Paris
Charles de Bouvens
French pulpit orator (1750-1830)
Charles de La Croix
Missionary, b. at Hoorbeke-St-Corneille, Belgium, Oct. 28, 1792; d. at Ghent, Aug. 20, 1869
Charles de La Fosse
Painter, b. in Paris, June 15, 1636; d. in Paris, December 13, 1716
Charles de La Rue
Great seventeenth-century Jesuit orator, b. at Paris, August 3, 1643; d. there, May 27, 1725
Charles Dolman
Publisher and bookseller, b. at Monmouth, England, 20 Sept., 1807; d. in Paris, December 31, 1863
Charles Du Plessis D'Argentre
Priest (1673-1740)
Charles Dufresne Du Cange
Historian and philologist, b. at Amiens, France, Dec. 18, 1610; d. at Paris, 1688
Charles Dumoulin
French jurist, b. at Paris in 1500; d. there December 27, 1566
Charles Erskine
Cardinal, b. at Rome, Feb. 13, 1739; d. at Paris, March 20, 1811
Charles Etienne Arthur Gayarre
American historian and writer of fiction, grandson of Etienne de Bore, the first successful sugar-planter of Louisiana; b. in New Orleans, January, 1805; d. February 11, 1895
Charles Etienne Brasseur de Bourbourg
Priest and historian (1814-1874)
Charles Eyston
Antiquary, b. 1667; d. Nov. 5, 1721
Charles Farrar Browne
Humorist, b. at Waterford, Oxford County, Maine, U.S.A., April 26, 1834; d. in Southampton, England, March 6, 1867
Charles Forbin-Janson
Bishop of Nancy and Toul, founder of the Association of the Holy Childhood, b. in Paris, France, Nov. 3, 1785; d. near Marseilles, July 12, 1844
Charles Francois D'Abra de Raconis
A French bishop, b. at the Chateau de Raconis in 1580, of a Calvinistic family; d. 1646
Charles Garnier
A Jesuit Missionary, b. at Paris, 1606, of Jean G. and Anne de Garault; d. December 7, 1649
Charles Hermite
B. at Dieuze, Lorraine, December 24, 1822; d. at Paris, January 14, 1901
Charles Huault de Montmagny
Second French Governor of Canada, b. in France towards the end of the sixteenth century, of Charles Huault and Antoinette du Drac; d. in the Antilles after 1651
Charles Ignatius White
Editor, historian, b. at Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A., Feb. 1, 1807; d. at Washington, D. C., April 1, 1878
Charles Januarius Acton
English cardinal, b. at Naples, 6 March, 1803; d. at Naples, 23 June, 1847
Charles John Seghers
Bishop of Vancouver Island, Apostle of Alaska, b. at Ghent, Belgium, Dec. 26, 1839; d. in Alaska, Nov. 28, 1886
Charles Joseph Kickham
Patriot, novelist, and poet, b. at Mullinahone, Co. Tipperary, Ireland, 1828; d. at Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Aug. 22, 1882
Charles Joseph Tricassin
One of the greatest theologians of the Capuchin Order, b. at Troyes; d. in 1681
Charles Lalemant
First superior of the Jesuit missions in Canada, b. at Paris, November 17, 1587; d. there, November 18, 1674
Charles Le Gobien
French Jesuit b. at St-Malo, Brittany, November 25, 1671; d. at Paris, March 5, 1708
Charles Lebrun
French historical painter, b. in Paris, 1619; d. at the Gobelin tapestry works, 1690
Charles Lenormant
French archaeologist, b. in Paris, June 1, 1802; d. at Athens, November 24, 1859
Charles Mahony
Irish Franciscan martyr; b. after 1639; d. at Ruthin, Denbighshire, August 12, 1679
Charles Martel
French Monarch (688-741)
Charles Mathieu Schols
Civil engineer, teacher, b. of Catholic parents at Maastricht, Holland, March 28, 1849; d. at Delft, March 17, 1897
Charles Mazenod
Bishop of Marseilles, and Founder of the Congr gation of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate, b. August 1, 1782; d. May 21, 1861
Charles Nerinckx
Missionary priest in Kentucky, founder of the Sisters of Loretto at the Foot of the Cross, b. in Herffelingen, Belgium, Oct. 2, 1761; d. at Ste. Genevieve, Mo., August 12, 1824
Charles O'Conor
Often called 'the Venerable', b. at Belanagare, Co. Roscommon, 1710; d. 1791
Charles O'Conor (Jurist)
Famous 19th century Amercian jurist
Charles Patrick Meehan
Irish historical writer and translator, b. in Dublin, July 12, 1812; d. there March 14, 1890
Charles Perrault
Writer, b. in Paris, Jan. 12, 1628; d. May 16, 1703
Charles Plowden
B. at Plowden Hall, Shropshire, 1743; d. at Jougne, Doubs, France, June 13, 1821
Charles Plumier
French botanist, b. at Marseilles, April 20, 1646; d. at Puerto de Sta Maria near Cadiz, November 20, 1704
Charles Raymbault
Missionary, b. in France, 1602; entered the Society of Jesus at Rouen (1621); d. at Quebec, 1643
Charles Rollin
Professor, writer, b. in Paris, 1661; d. there, 1741
Charles Russell
Lawyer, judge, and parliamentarian, b. at Newry, Ireland, November 10, 1832; d. in London, August 10, 1900
Charles Sainte-Claire Deville
Geologist, b. at St. Thomas, West Indies, February 26, 1814; d. in Paris, October 10, 1876
Charles Stanton Devas
Political economist, b. at Woodside, Old Windsor, England, of Protestant parents, August 26, 1848; d. November 6, 1906
Charles Thomas
French composer, b. 5 Aug,. 1811; d. Feb. 12, 1896
Charles Walmesley
Bishop of Rama, Vicar Apostolic of the Western District, England, b. Jan. 13, 1722; d. at Bath, England, Nov. 25, 1797
Charles Warren Stoddard
American author, b. August 7, 1843.; d. April 23, 1909
Charles Waterton
Naturalist and explorer, b. in Walton Hall near Wakefield, Yorkshire, England, in 1782; d. there in 1865
Charles William Russell
Priest, writer and editor, b. at Killough, Co. Down, May 14, 1812; d. at Dublin Feb. 26, 1880
Charles-Antoine Coysevox
A distinguished French sculptor, b. at Lyons, 29 Sept., 1640; d. at Paris, 10 Oct., 1720
Charles-Claude Fauriel
Historian, b. at St-Etienne, France, October 27, 1772; d. at Paris, July 15, 1844
Charles-Edmond-Henride Coussemaker
French historian of music, b. at Bailleul, department of Nord, France, April 19, 1805; d. at Lille, January 10, 1876
Charles-Emile Freppel
Bishop of Angers, France b. at Ober-Ehnheim, Alsace, June 1, 1827; d. at Paris, Dec. 22, 1891
Charles-felix Cazeau
French-Canadian priest, b. at Quebec, December 24, 1807, d. February 26, 1881
Charles-Forbes-Rene Montalembert
Soldier and writer, b. in London, April 15, 1810; d. in Paris March 13, 1870
Charles-Francois Baillargeon
French-Canadian bishop
Charles-Francois Gounod
Nineteenth-century French composer: b. 1818; d. 1893
Charles-Francois Houbigant
B. in Paris, 1686; d. there October 31, 1783
Charles-Francois Toustain
French Benedictine, and member of the Congregation of St-Maur, b. at Repas in the Diocese of Seez, France, October 13, 1700; d. at St-Denis, July 1, 1754
Charles-Hyacinthe Hugo
B. Sept. 20, 1667, at St. Mihiel (Department of Meuse, France); d. August 2, 1739
Charles-Joseph de Harlez de Deulin
Belgian Orientalist, domestic prelate, canon of the cathedral of Liege, member of the Academie Royale of Belgium; b. at Liege, August 21, 1832; d. at Louvain, July 14, 1899
Charles-Louis de Secondat Montesquieu
Writer and publicist, b. in the Chateau de la Brede near Bordeaux, January 18, 1689; d. at Paris, February 10, 1755
Charles-Louis Richard
Theologian and publicist; b. at Blainville-sur-l'Eau, in Lorraine, April, 1711; d. at Mons, Belgium, Aug. 16, 1794
Charles-Louis-Joseph-Xavier de La Vallee-Poussin
Professor of geology and mineralogy at the Catholic University of Louvain (1863), doctor honoris causa of the same university (1876), foreign member of the Academie Royale de Belgique (1885), vice-president of the directing council of the geological map o
Charles-Marie de La Condamine
Explorer and physicist (1701-1774)
Charles-Martial-Allemand Lavigerie
French cardinal, b. at Huire near Bayonne, Oct. 13, 1825; d. at Algiers, Nov. 27, 1892
Charles-maurice de Talleyrand- Perigord
Prince of Benevento, Bishop of Autun, French minister and ambassador, b. February 13, 1754; d. May, 1838
Charles-Maurice Le Tellier
Archbishop of Reims, b. at Turin, 1642; d. at Reims, 1710
Charles-Michel de L' Epee
Philanthropic priest and inventor of the sign alphabet for the instruction of the deaf and dumb; was b. November 25, 1712; d. December 23, 1789
Charles-Rene Billuart
Dominican preacher and theologian (1685-1757)
Charles-Thomas Maillard de Tournon
Papal legate to India and China, cardinal, b. of a noble Savoyard family at Turin, Dec. 21, 1668; d. in confinement at Macao, June 8, 1710
Charterhouse
St. Bruno founded the first house of his austere order at Chartreux, near Grenoble
Chartulary
Medieval manuscript containing transcriptions of original documents relating to the foundation and legal rights of various establishments
Chastity
The virtue
Chasuble
The principal and most conspicuous Mass vestment
Chelm and Belz
Diocese of the Greek-Ruthenian Rite in Russian Poland, subject directly to the Holy See, and formerly a suffragan of Kijow
Cherokee Indians
Largest and most important tribe of Iroquoian stock of the southern section of the United States
Chersonesus
(1) titular see of Crete; (2) titular see of Thrace
Cherubim
Angelic beings or symbolic representations thereof, mentioned frequently in the Old and once in the New Testament
Chibchas
Sedentary Indians of the eastern and north-eastern Highlands of Colombia, South America
Children of Mary
The Sodality of Children of Mary Immaculate
Children of Mary of the Sacred Heart
Sodality of the Blessed Virgin
Chile
Narrow strip of coastland in South America
China
Largest political division of Eastern Asia
Chinooks
An aboriginal tribe of the extreme north-west of the United States
Chios
One of the Sporades in the Aegean Sea
Chippewa Indians
Largest and most important tribe north of Mexico
Chivalry
As an institution, considered from three points of view: the military, the social, and the religious
Choctaw Indians
Important tribe or confederacy of Muskogean stock
Choir (part of a church)
That part of the church where the stalls of the clergy are
Choir (singers)
Body of singers entrusted with the musical parts of the Church service, and organized and instructed for that purpose
Chorepiscopi
A name originally given in the Eastern Church to bishops whose jurisdiction was confined to rural districts
Chrestien Leclercq
Franciscan Recollet, distinguished historiographer and one of the most zealous missionaries to the Micmac of Canada
Chrism
Mixture of olive oil and balsam blessed by a bishop; used in certain sacraments and in certain ecclesiastical functions
Chrismal (Chrismatory)
Formerly used to designate the sheath, or cloth-covering (theca) in which relics were wrapped up
Chrismarium
(1) A place in a church; (2) An ampulla or jar
Christendom
The part of the world which is inhabited by Christians
Christian
First Bishop of Prussia (d. 1245)
Christian and Religious Perfection
A thing is perfect in which nothing is wanting of its nature, purpose, or end
Christian Archaeology
That branch of the science of archaeology the object of which is the study of ancient Christian monuments
Christian Art
The fine arts and their creations
Christian Brothers of Ireland
Institute founded at Waterford, Ireland, in 1802, by Edmund Ignatius Rice
Christian Burial
Interment of a deceased person with ecclesiastical rites in consecrated ground
Christian Calendar
Treatment of the calendar as it was in 1907
Christian Democracy
Distinguishes between popular Catholic action and the political movement
Christian Doctrine
The knowledge imparted by teaching; the act of teaching
Christian Iconography
Science of the description, history, and interpretation of icons
Christian Kruik Van Adrichem
Catholic priest and theological writer, b. at Delft, 13 February, 1533; d. at Cologne, 20 June, 1585
Christian Latin Literature
Early historical development of Christian Latin literature
Christian Lupus
Historian, b. at Ypres (Flanders), 23 July, 1612; d. at Louvain, July 10, 1681
Christian Mayer
Moravian astronomer, b. Aug. 20, 1719; d. April 16, 1783
Christian Mohr
Sculptor, b. at Andernach, 1823; d. at Cologne, 1888
Christian Museum of Lateran
Established by Pius IX, in 1854
Christian Museums
Reserved to those museums which abound chiefly in Christian objects antedating the Middle Ages, namely, sarcophagi, inscriptions and products of the minor arts
Christian Names
Name given at baptism
Christian Ostraka
Inscriptions on clay, wood, metal, and other hard materials
Christian Wolfgang Herdtrich
An Austrian Jesuit missionary in China; b. at Graz, Styria, June 25, 1625; d. July 18, 1684
Christian Worship
Homage paid to God, to Jesus Christ, to His saints, to the beings or even to the objects which have a special relation to God
Christianity
As a religion
Christina Alexandra
Queen of Sweden
Christine de Pisan
French poetess and historiographer (1363-1430)
Christine of Stommeln, Blessed
Beguine (1242-1312)
Christmas
History and celebration
Christobal Morales
Composer, b. at Seville, Jan. 2, 1512; d. at Malaga, June 14, 1553
Christoph Anton Migazzi
Cardinal, Prince Archbishop of Vienna, b. 1714, in the Tyrol, d. April 14, 1803, at Vienna
Christoph Brouwer
Historian, b. March 12, 1559, at Arnheim, Holland; d. in 1617, at Trier, Germany
Christoph von Schmid
Writer of children's stories and educator, b. at Dinkelsbuehl, in Bavaria, Aug. 15, 1768; d. at Augsburg in 1854
Christophe Plantin
Book-binder and publisher of Antwerp, b. 1514, at or near Tours (France); d. July 1, 1589, at Antwerp
Christopher Bagshaw
Convert, priest, prisoner for the Faith, and a prominent figure in the controversies between Catholic priests in the reign of Elizabeth
Christopher Bainbridge
Archbishop of York, and Cardinal (1464-1514)
Christopher Bales, Venerable
English priest and martyr (1564-1590)
Christopher Besoldus
German jurist and publicist (1577-1638)
Christopher Borrus
Jesuit missionary, mathematician, and astronomer (1583-1632)
Christopher Buxton, Venerable
Priest and martyr, b. in Derbyshire; d. at Canterbury, October 1, 1588
Christopher Clavius
Jesuit mathematician and astronomer (1538-1612)
Christopher Columbus
Explorer
Christopher Davenport
Theologian, b. 1598, at Coventry, England; d. May 31, 1680
Christopher Holywood
Jesuit; b. at Artane, Dublin, in 1559; d. September 4, 1626
Christopher Madruzzi
B. July 5, 1512; d. July 5, 1578
Christopher Norton
Martyr; executed at Tyburn, May 27, 1570
Christopher Numar of Forli
Minister general of the Friars Minor and cardinal, date of birth uncertain; d. at Ancona, Mar. 23, 1528
Christopher Robinson, Venerable
Martyr, b. date unknown; executed at Carlisle, Aug. 19, 1598
Christopher Royas de Spinola
Bishop of Wiener-Neustadt, b. of a noble Spanish family, near Roermond in Gelderland in 1626; d. at Wiener-Neustadt, March 12, 1695
Christopher Scheiner
German astronomer, b. at Wald, near Mindelheim, in Swabia, July 25, 1575; d. at Niesse, in Silesia, July 18, 1650
Christopher Wharton, Venerable
B. at Middleton, Yorkshire, before 1536; martyred at York, March 28, 1600
Christopher, Saint
Martyr, probably of the third century
Chrodegang, Saint
Bishop of Metz (d. 766)
Chromatius, Saint
Bishop of Aquileia (d. about 406-407)
Chronicle of Eusebius
Explores the two versions of the Chronicle
Chronicle of Melrose
Opens with the year 735, ends abruptly in 1270, founded solely upon the Cottonian Manuscript, Faustina B. ix, in the British Museum, the only ancient copy preserved
Chronicon Paschale
Valuable Byzantine chronicle of the world written in the seventh century
Chrysanthus and Daria, Saints
Roman martyrs
Chrysogonus, Saint
Martyr
Chrysopolis
Titular see of Roman Arabia
Chrysostomus Hanthaler
A Cistercian, historical investigator and writer; b. at Marenbach, Austria, February 14, 1690; d. in the Cistercian monastery of Lilienfeld in Lower Austria, September 2, 1754
Chur
Comprises the Swiss Cantons of Graubunden (Grisons), Glarus, Zurich, Unterwalden, and Uri, as well as the little Principality of Lichtenstein
Church Maintenance
Proper support of church edifices and church institutions, as well as of the clergy who minister in them
Church of Alexandria, The
Early Christian center in Egypt
Church, The
Teutonic rendering of the Greek ecclesia; denotes the society founded by Our Lord Jesus Christ.
Churching of Women
Blessing given by the Church to mothers after recovery from childbirth
Chusai
The Arachite, i.e. the native of Archi, a place south of the portion of Ephraim, near Bethel
Chytri
Titular see of Cyprus
Ciborium
Chalice-like vessel used to contain the Blessed Sacrament
Cibyra
Titular see of Caria, in Asia Minor
Cidyessus
Titular see of Asia Minor
Cignani
Bolognese painter (1628-1719)
Cincture
Article of liturgical attire
Cinites
Tribe or family often mentioned in the Old Testament, personified as Qavin from which the nomen gentilicium Qeni is derived
Cinna
Titular see of Asia Minor
Circesium
Titular see of Osrhoene
Circumcision
Cutting and, specifically, the removal of the prepuce, or foreskin, from the penis
Ciriaco D'Ancona
Italian antiquary (1391-1455)
Cisalpine Club
Association of Catholic laymen
Cisamus
Titular see of Crete
Cistercian Abbey of Villers
Situated on the confines of Villers and Tilly, Duchy of Brabant, present Diocese of Namur (Belgium), and first monastery of the order in this territory
Cistercian Abbey of Waverley
Situated in Surrey, near Farnham, founded by William Gifford, Bishop of Winchester, on Nov. 24, 1124
Cistercian Abbey of Wilhering
Situated on the right bank of the Danube, in the Diocese of Linz, Austria
Cistercian Abbey of Zwettl
A filiation of Heiligenkreuz, of the line of Morimond, situated in Lower Austria, in the Diocese of St. Hippolyte
Cistercians
Religious of the Order of Citeaux, a Benedictine reform, established at Citeaux in 1098 by St. Robert
Cistercians in the British Isles
St. Stephen Harding, third Abbot of Citeaux (1109-33), was an Englishman and his influence in the early organization of the Cistercian Order had been very great
Citation
Legal act through which a person, by mandate of the judge, is called before the tribunal for trial
Citharizum
Titular see of Armenia
Cities of Refuge
Towns which according to the Jewish law enjoyed the right of asylum and to which anyone who had unintentionally slain another might flee and be protected from the 'avenger of blood'
Ciudad Real
Bishopric-Priorate of the Military Orders of Spain, directly subject to the Holy See
Ciudad Rodrigo
Suffragan of the Diocese of Santiago, comprises the greater part of the province of Salamanca, and a portion of the province of Caceres
Cius
Titular see of Asia Minor
Civil Allegiance
Duty of loyalty and obedience which a person owes to the State of which he is a citizen
Civil Aspect of Bankruptcy
Article details the history of the term bankruptcy
Civil Authority
Nature, sources, limits, divisions, origin, and the true and false theories of authority
Civil incorporation of Church Property
Treatment of how church property is handled under civil law
Civil Marriage
Marriage recognized by the state rather than the Church
Clandestinity
Matrimonial impediment introduced by the Council of Trent
Clare of Assisi, Saint
Cofoundress of the Order of Poor Ladies, or Clares, and first Abbess of San Damiano (1194-1253)
Clare of Montefalco, Saint
Franciscan or Augustinian (1268-1308)
Clare of Rimini, Blessed
Of the order of Poor Clares (1282-1346)
Classical Latin Literature in the Church
Explores the relations of the classical literature, chiefly Latin, to the Catholic Church
Claude Allouez
Early Jesuit missionary and explorer of the western part of the United States, b. in France in 1620; d. in 1689, near the St. John's River, in Indiana
Claude Bernard ('the poor priest')
French physiologist (1813-1878)
Claude Bernard (French physiologist)
French physiologist (1813-1878)
Claude Buffier
Philosopher and author, b. in Poland, of French parents, May 25, 1661; d. in Paris, May 17, 1737
Claude Chantelou
Benedictine; patristic scholar (1617-1664)
Claude D'Espence
French theologian, b. in 1511 at Chalons-sur-Marne; d. Oct. 5, 1571, at Paris
Claude Dablon
Jesuit missionary, b. at Dieppe, France, in February, 1618; d. at Quebec, May 3, 1697
Claude de La Colombiere, Venerable
Missionary and ascetical writer, b. of noble parentage at Saint-Symphorien-d'Ozon, between Lyons and Vienne, in 1641; d. at Paray-le-Monial, Feb. 15, 1682. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1659
Claude de Lorrain
French painter and etcher, b. in 1600 d. in Rome, Nov. 21, 1681 (or Nov. 23, 1682)
Claude de Sainctes
French controversialist, b.1525; d. 1591
Claude de Visdelou
B. at the Chateau de Bienassis, Pleneuf, Brittany, Aug. 12, 1656; d. at Pondicherry, Nov. 11, 1737. He entered the Society of Jesus, Sept. 5, 1673
Claude Estiennot de La Serre
Benedictine of the Congregation of Saint-Maur, b. at Varennes, France, 1639; d. at Rome, 1699
Claude Fleury
Church historian and educator; b. at Paris, December 6, 1640; d. July 14, 1725
Claude Frassen
Celebrated Scotist theologian and philosopher of the Order of Friars Minor; b. near Peronne, France, in 1620; d. at Paris, February 26, 1711
Claude Judde
Jesuit French preacher (ca. 1661-1735)
Claude Maltret
French Jesuit, b. at Puy, Oct. 3, 1621; d. at Toulouse, Jan. 3, 1674
Claude Perrault
B. at Paris, 1613; d. there, 1688; built the main eastern facade of the Louvre, known as the 'Colonnade'
Claude-Adrien Nonnotte
Controversialist; b. in Besancon, July 29, 1711; d. there, September 3, 1793
Claude-Ferdinand Gaillard
A French engraver and painter; b. at Paris, Jan. 7, 1834; d. there, Jan. 27, 1887
Claude-Francois Menestrier
Antiquarian, b. at Lyons, March 9, 1631; d. at Paris, Jan. 21, 1705. He inherited a taste for antiquities
Claude-Frederic Bastiat
French economist (1801-1850)
Claude-Godefroi Coquart
Jesuit; missionary and army chaplain (1706-1765)
Claudia
Christian woman of Rome
Claudianus Mamertus
Gallo-Roman theologian and the brother of St. Mamertus, Bishop of Vienne (d. about 473)
Claudio Monteverde
Distinguished musician, b, at Cremona, May, 1567; d. at Venice, Nov. 29, 1643
Claudiopolis (Asia Minor)
Titular see of Asia Minor
Claudiopolis (Bithynia)
Titular see of Bithynia, in Asia Minor
Claudius Acquaviva
Fifth General of the Society of Jesus, b. October, 1543; d. 31 January, 1615
Claudius Clavus
Danish cartographer (1388-date of death unknown)
Clazomenae
Titular see of Asia Minor
Clean and Unclean
Distinction between legal or ceremonial, as opposed to moral
Clemens August von Droste-Vischering
Archbishop of Cologne, b. Jan. 21, 1773, at Munster, Germany; d. Oct. 19, 1845
Clemens Non Papa
Representative of the Flemish or Netherland School of music of the sixteenth century (d. 1558)
Clement Mary Hofbauer, Blessed
Second founder of the Redemptorist Congregation (1751-1821)
Clement of Alexandria
Greek theologian and head of the catechetical school of Alexandria (d. about 215)
Clement of Ireland, Saint
Irish scholar; teacher of youth
Clement Schrader
Jesuit theologian, b. at Itzum, in Hanover, Nov., 1820; d. at Poitiers Feb. 23, 1875
Clementine Deymann
Franciscan; b. at Klein-Stavern, Oldenburg, Germany, June 24, 1844; d. at Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.A., December 4, 1896
Clementines
Religious romance which has come down to us in two forms as composed by Pope St. Clement I
Cleophas
According to the Catholic English versions the name of two persons mentioned in the New Testament
Clerestory
Term formerly applied to any window or traceried opening in a church
Cleric
Person who has been legitimately received into the ranks of the clergy
Clerical Costume
Only the broad outlines can be dealt with here
Clericis Laicos
Bull issued 25 Feb., 1296, by Boniface VIII in response to appeal of the English and French prelates for protection against the civil power
Clerics of Saint Viator
St. Viator, lector of the cathedral at Lyons, France, lived in the fourth century and is the earliest type of the teacher of the cathedral schools.
Clerks Regular
Bodies of men in the Church who by the very nature of their institute unite the perfection of the religious state to the priestly office
Clerks Regular of Our Savior
Religious congregation instituted in its present form in 1851, at Benoite Vaux in the Diocese of Verdun, France
Clerks Regular of the Mother of God of Lucca
Congregation founded by the Blessed Giovanni Leonardi
Clerks Regular of the Pious Schools
Religious order founded in Rome in 1597 by St. Joseph Calasanctius, first care was to provide free education for poor children
Cloister
Enclosed space for religious retirement
Clotilda, Saint
Queen of the Franks (c. 474-545)
Clouet
Family name of several generations of painters
Clovis
King of the Salic Franks (466-511)
Co-Consecrators
Bishops who assist the presiding bishop in the act of consecrating a new bishop
Co-Education
The practice of educating the sexes together
Cocussus
Titular see of Armenia
Codex
Name given to a manuscript in leaf form, distinguishing it from a roll
Codex Alexandrinus
Valuable Greek manuscript of the Old and New Testaments, so named because it was brought to Europe from the see of Alexandria
Codex Amiatinus
Codex Amiatinus
Codex Bezae
One of the five most important Greek New Testament MSS., and the most interesting of all on account of its peculiar readings
Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus
Last in the group of the four great uncial MSS. of the Greek Bible
Codex Sinaiticus
Greek manuscript of the Old and New Testaments, of the greatest antiquity faded away and value
Codex Vaticanus
Greek manuscript, the most important of all the manuscripts of Holy Scripture
Coelchu
Distinguished Abbot of the School of Clonmacnoise in Ireland, who flourished during the latter half of the eighth century
Coemgen, Saint
Abbot of Glendalough, Ireland (498-618)
Coenred
King of Mercia (reigned 704-709)
Coeur d'Alene Indians
Small tribe of Salishan stock
Cogitosus
Irishman, an author, and a monk of Kildare
Cola di Rienzi
Popular tribune and extraordinary historical figure d. 1354
Colette, Saint
Founder of the Colettine Poor Clares (1381-1447)
Coliseum, The
Known as the Flavian Amphitheatre, commenced A.D. 72 by Vespasian, the first of the Flavian emperors, dedicated by Titus A.D. 80
Collect
Name now used only for the short prayers before the Epistle in the Mass, which occur again at Lauds, Terce, Sext, None, and Vespers
Collectarium
Book which contains the Collects
Collections
Offerings of the faithful in their special relation to the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass
Collections of Ancient Canons
Treatment of collections of Church laws from the early centuries
Collectivism
Term sometimes employed as a substitute for socialism
College
Originally signified a community, a corporation, an organized society, a body of colleagues,or a society of persons engaged in some common pursuit
College (in Canon Law)
Collection of persons united together for a common object so as to form one body
College and Church of the Anima in Rome
S. Maria dell' Anima, the German national church and hospice in Rome
College de France, The
Founded in the interest of higher education by Francis I
College of Cardinals 1913, Members of the
Members of the College of Cardinals 1913
College of Saint Bonaventure
Located near Florence, Italy, founded July 14, 1879, center of literary activity in the Order of Friars Minor
College of Saint Isidore
Located in Rome, was originally founded for the use of Spanish Franciscans during the pontificate of Gregory XV
College of Saint Omer
Well-known Jesuit college at St. Omer, founded by Father Parsons in 1592 or 1593
Collegiate
Adjective applied to those churches and institutions whose members form a college
Colman
Name of several Irish saints
Cologne
In Prussia
Colomba of Rieti, Blessed
Saintly Dominican woman (1467-1501)
Colonia (supplement)
Includes more recent information on Colonia
Colonia (titular see of Armenia)
Titular see of Armenia
Colonna
Celebrated family which played an important role in Italy during medieval and Renaissance times
Colonnade
Columns symmetrically arranged in one or more rows
Colophon
Titular see of Asia Minor
Colorado
The thirty-fifth, in point of admission, of the United States of America
Colossae
Titular see of Phrygia in Asia Minor, suppressed in 1894
Coluccio di Pierio di Salutati
Italian Humanist, b. in Tuscany, 1331; d. May 4, 1406
Columba of Terryglass, Saint
Founded the celebrated monastery of Tirdaglas
Columba, Saint
Two saints of this name, virgins and martyrs
Columba, Saint (Abbot of Iona)
Abbot of Iona, b. at Gartan, County Donegal, Ireland, December 7, 521; d. June 9, 597
Columbanus, Saint
Abbot of Luxeuil and Bobbio (543-615)
Column
In architecture a round pillar or a many-sided prism practically cylindrical in shape, which supports another body in a vertical direction
Comana
Titular see of Asia Minor
Comgall, Saint
Founder and abbot of the great Irish monastery at Bangor, flourished in the sixth century
Commandments of God
Ten precepts bearing on the fundamental obligations of religion and morality and embodying the revealed expression of the Creator's will
Commandments of the Church
I. the nature of the Commandments of the Church in general; II. the history of the Commandments of the Church; III. their classification
Commemoration (in Liturgy)
Recital of a part of the Office or Mass assigned to a certain feast or day when the whole cannot be said
Commemoration of the Passion of Christ
A feast kept on the Tuesday after Sexagesima
Commendatory Abbot
An ecclesiastic, or some-times a layman, who holds an abbey in commendam
Commentaries on the Bible
Jewish, Patristic, Medieval, Modern Catholic, and Non-Catholic
Commissariat of the Holy Land
In the Order of Friars Minor the territory or district assigned to a commissary
Commissary Apostolic
One who has received power from a legitimate superior authority to pass judgment in a certain cause or to take information concerning it
Commission of Sacred Archaeology, The
Official pontifical board founded in the middle of the nineteenth century
Commodianus
Christian poet
Commodus
Roman Emperor (161-192)
Common Law
Juridical principles and general rules regulating the possession, use and inheritance of property and the conduct of individuals
Communicatio Idiomatum
Technical expression in the theology of the Incarnation
Communion Antiphon
That which was originally sung while the people were receiving the Blessed Sacrament
Communion Bench
Adaptation of the sanctuary-guard or altar-rail
Communion of Children
(1) the ancient practice, and (2) the present discipline of the Church
Communion of Saints
The doctrine expressed in the Apostles' Creed
Communion of the Sick
As differentiated from ordinary Communion
Communion under Both Kinds
Communion received under two species, both bread and wine
Communism
Social system in which all property, or at least all productive property, is owned by the group, or community
Compagnie du Saint-Sacrement
Catholic secret society
Compensation
Price paid for human exertion or labor
Complin
The completion of all the Hours of the day: the close of the day
Compostela
Famous city of Spain, situated on an eminence between the Sar (the Sars of Pomponius Mela) and the Sarela
Compromise (in Canon Law)
In a general sense, is a mutual promise or contract of two parties in controversy to refer their differences to the decision of arbitrators
Conal, Saint
Irish bishop who flourished in the second half of the fifth century
Conan, Saint
Bishop of the Isle of Man (d. 684)
Concelebration
The rite by which several priests say Mass together, all consecrating the same bread and wine
Conceptionists
Branch of the Order of Saint Clare, founded by Beatriz de Silva
Conclave
Closed space set aside for cardinals when electing a pope; also the assembly of the cardinals for the canonical execution of this purpose
Concordances of the Bible
Indexes to the Bible; Biblical words arranged alphabetically indicating the passages of the Bible where the words occur
Concordat
Canonists and publicists do not agree about the nature of a concordat and, consequently, vary much in the definition they give
Concubinage
The state, more or less permanent, of a man and woman living together in illicit intercourse
Concupiscence
In its strict and specific acceptation, a desire of the lower appetite contrary to reason
Concursus
Special competitive examination prescribed in canon law for all aspirants to certain ecclesiastical offices to which is attached the cure of souls
Condition
That which is necessary or at least conducive to the actual operation of a cause
Confession
Originally used to designate the burial-place of a confessor or martyr, this term gradually came to have a variety of applications
Confessor
Etymology and primitive, later, and modern meanings
Confirmation
Sacrament in which the Holy Ghost is given to those already baptized in order to make them strong and perfect Christians and soldiers of Jesus Christ
Confiteor
A general confession of sins
Conflict of Investitures, The
The great struggle between the popes and the German kings Henry IV and Henry V.
Confraternities of Penitents
Congregations, with statutes prescribing various penitential works, such as fasting, the use of the discipline, the wearing of a hair shirt, etc
Confraternities of Priests
Confraternities of a local character form the subject of this article.
Confraternities of the Cord
Pious associations of the faithful, the members of which wear a cord or cincture in honor of a saint
Confraternity
Voluntary lay association, established and guided by competent ecclesiastical authority for the promotion of Christian charity or piety
Confraternity of Christian Doctrine
Association established at Rome in 1562 for the purpose of giving religious instruction
Confucianism
Complex system of moral, social, political, and religious teaching built up by Confucius; perpetuated as a State religion
Congo Independent State and Congo Missions
Account of the Congo Independent State written before the annexation of the State by the Belgian Government
Congregatio de Auxiliis
Commission established by Clement VIII to settle the theological controversy between Dominicans and Jesuits regarding grace
Congregation of Christian Retreat
Two branches of this congregation, the Fathers of Christian Retreat and the Sisters
Congregation of Cluny
Earliest reform, which became practically a distant order, within the Benedictine family
Congregation of Holy Cross
A body of priests and lay brothers constituted in the religious state
Congregation of Missionaries of St. Charles Borromeo
Founded by John Baptist Scalabrini, for the moral, civil, and economical welfare of the Italian emigrants in the New World
Congregation of Our Lady of Calvary
Founded at Poitiers, in 1617
Congregation of Priests of the Mission
Congregation of secular priests with religious vows founded by St. Vincent de Paul
Congregation of Saint Edmund
Founded in 1843, by Jean-Baptiste Muard, at Pontigny, France, for the work of popular missions
Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament
Reformed, cloistered congregation of the Dominican order
Congregation of the Brothers of Charity
Founded in Belgium; approved and confirmed by Pope Leo XIII 1899
Congregation of the Missionaries of Mariannhill
Mission-oriented congregation in South Africa
Congregation of the Most Precious Blood
An association of secular priests living in community, whose principal aim is to give missions and retreats
Congregation of the Presentation of Mary
Devoted to the education of young girls,founded in 1796 at Theuyts, Ardeche, France, by the Venerable Mother Marie Rivier
Congregation of the Resurrection
Founded in Paris, 1836, by Bogdan Jatiski, Peter Semenenko, and Jerome Kajsiewicz, and approved by the Holy See, 1902
Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary
Founded by Father Coudrin to promote devotion to the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and of Mary
Congregation of the Servants of the Most Blessed Sacrament
Order of nuns, founded by the Venerable Pierre-Julien Eymard in 1858
Congregation of the Sisters of Misericorde
Congregation of women founded January 16, 1848, for the purpose of procuring spiritual and corporal assistance for poor mothers and unfortunate girls
Congregational Singing
Ancient usage; it's formal prohibition and gradual decay; present-day revival
Congregationalism
Innumerable Puritan factions, with varying degrees of radicalism, arising against the prelatical form of government in Anglicanism and Catholicism
Congregations of Mount Calvary
Consists of two congregations, one for sisters the other for secular priests
Congregations of Notre Dame
Overview of several religious congregations
Congregations of Providence
Five religious orders
Congregations of the Heart of Mary
Various congregations
Congregations of the Holy Family
Name applied to several congregations
Congregations of the Precious Blood
A congregation of nuns, no longer in existence
Congress of Ems
Meeting of German Archbishops for purpose of protesting against papal interference in the exercise of episcopal powers
Congrua
Canonical term to designate the lowest sum proper for the yearly income of a cleric
Congruism
Theological theory; grace is efficacious, at least in part, due to the fact that the grace is given in circumstances favorable to its operation
Conimbricenses
Jesuits of the University of Coimbra (q.v.) in Portugal
Connecticut
The state
Conrad Celtes
A German Humanist, b. at Wipfeld in Lower Franconia, February 1, 1459; d. at Vienna, February 4, 1508
Conrad of Ascoli, Blessed
Friar Minor and missionary (1234-1289)
Conrad of Hochstadt
Archbishop of Cologne and Imperial Elector (d. 1261)
Conrad of Leonberg
Cistercian monk and Humanist (1460-c, 1520)
Conrad of Marburg
Confessor of Saint Elizabeth of Thuringia and papal inquisitor (d. 1233)
Conrad of Offida, Blessed
Friar Minor (c. 1241-1306)
Conrad of Piacenza, Saint
Hermit of the Third Order of St. Francis (d. 1351)
Conrad of Saxony
Friar Minor and ascetical writer (d. 1279)
Conrad of Urach
Cardinal-Bishop of Porto and Santa Rufina (c. 1180-1227)
Conrad of Utrecht
Bishop (killed 1099)
Conrad Peutinger
Antiquarian and humanist, b. at Augsburg, Oct. 14, 1465; d. Dec. 28, 1547
Conrad Tanner
Abbot of Einsiedeln, b. Dec. 28, 1752; d. April 7, 1825
Conrad Vetter
Preacher and polemical writer, b. at Engen in the present Grand Duchy of Baden, 1547; d. at Munich, October 11, 1622
Conrad von Bolanden
German novelist (b. 1828)
Conradin of Bornada
Dominican preacher (d. 1429)
Consanguinity (in Canon Law)
Diriment impediment of marriage as far as the fourth degree of kinship inclusive
Conscience
The one intellect of a man inasmuch as it considers right and wrong in conduct, aided by all external helps that are to the purpose
Consciousness
In its widest sense it includes all our sensations, thoughts, feelings, and volitions--in fact the sum total of our mental life
Consecration
Act by which a thing is dedicated to a sacred use, or by which a person or thing is dedicated to the service and worship of God
Consent (in Canon Law)
Deliberate agreement required of those concerned in legal transactions in order to legalize such actions
Consentius
The name of a 5th century Gallo-Roman family
Conservator
Judge delegated by the pope to defend certain classes of persons--as universities, religious orders, the poor--from injury or violence
Consistory, Papal
The assemblage of the Cardinals in council around the Pope
Constable, Cuthbert
A constant patron of Catholic literature; d. 27 March, 1746
Constance
A city that was once the seat of a diocese
Constance, Council of
A (partly) ecumenical council held at Constance, from 1414 to 1418
Constant Fouard
Ecclesiastical writer; b. at Elbeuf, near Rouen, Aug. 6, 1837; d. at his native place, Dec. 3, 1903
Constantia
Titular see of Arabia and suffragan of Bostra
Constantine Africanus
Medieval medical writer and teacher (1015-c. 1087)
Constantine Lascaris
Greek scholar, b. 1434; d. at Messina in 1501
Constantine the Great
Roman Emperor
Constantine von Schazler
Theologian, b. at Ratisbon, May 7, 1827; d. at Interlaken,19, September, 1880
Constantino Brumidi
Italo-American historical painter, b. at Rome, 1805; d. at Washington, February 19, 1880
Constantino Cajetan
A Benedictine savant, b. at Syracuse, Sicily, in 1560; d. at Rome, September 17, 1650
Constantinople
Constantinople
Constantinople, Councils of
Four general councils of the Church and several particular councils were held in this city
Constantinople, Rite of (Byzantine Rite)
The Liturgies, Divine Office, forms for the administration of sacraments, etc.
Constitutio Romanos Pontifices
Issued by Leo XIII May 8, 1881 defining the relations in England and Scotland between bishops and religious
Consubstantiation
Heretical doctrine; an attempt to hold the Real Presence of Christ in the Holy Eucharist without admitting Transubstantiation
Contemplation
The idea of contemplation is so intimately connected with that of mystical theology that the one cannot be clearly explained independently of the other
Contemplative Life
Life ordered in view of contemplation excluding all other preoccupations and intents
Continence
Abstinence from even the licit gratifications of marriage
Contingent
One of the supreme divisions of being, that is, contingent being, as distinguished from necessary being
Contract
The Canonical and Moralist Doctrine
Contrition
Recognition of wrong done to God, a detestation of the evil wrought, and a desire to turn from evil and do good
Controversies on Grace
Concerned chiefly with the relation between grace and free will
Contumacy (in Canon Law)
Obstinate disobedience of the lawful orders of a court
Convent
(1) A religious community of either sex when spoken of in its corporate capacity; (2) The buildings in which reside a community of either sex
Convent Schools (Great Britain)
Education within Convents
Conversi
Lay brothers in a religious order
Conversion
A moral change, a turning or returning to God, to the true religion
Convocation of the English Clergy
Technical name given in the Church of England to what corresponds in some respects to a provincial synod
Copacavana
Village on the shore of Lake Titicaca, province of Omasuyos, in northern Bolivia
Cope
Vestment which may most conveniently be described as a long liturgical mantle, open in front and fastened at the breast with a band or clasp
Coptic Literature
Since the publication of the article [[Egypt]] (above V, 329-363), under which Coptic literature was treated, important discoveries of entirely new Sahidic material have taken place
Coptic Persecutions
During the first two centuries the Church of Alexandria seems to have been freer from official persecution at the hands of the Roman Government than its sister churches of Rome and Antioch
Coptic Versions of the Bible
Coptic translations of the Bible
Coptos
Titular see of Upper Egypt
Coracesium
Titular see of Asia Minor
Corbie
English family active in the faith during the 17th century, especially brothers Ambrose and Ralph
Corbinian, Saint
Bishop of Freising, in Bavaria (c. 680-730)
Core, Dathan, and Abiron
Leaders of a revolt against Moses and Aaron (Num., xvi)
Corinth
Titular archiepiscopal see of Greece
Cormac MacCuilenan
Irish bishop and King of Cashel (836-908)
Cornelis Engelbrechtsen
Dutch painter, b. at Leyden, 1468; d. there 1533
Cornelius
Centurion of the Italic cohort, whose conversion at Caesarea with his household is related in Acts, x
Cornelius Cornelii a Lapide
Flemish Jesuit and exegete, b. at Bocholt, in Flemish Limburg, December 18, 1567; d. at Rome, March 12, 1637
Cornelius Hazart
Controversialist, orator, and writer, b. October 26, 1617, at Oudenarde, in the Netherlands; entered the Society of Jesus, Sept. 24, 1635; d. Oct. 25, 1690, at Antwerp
Cornelius Heeney
Merchant and philanthropist; b. in King's County, Ireland, 1754; d. at Brooklyn, U.S.A., May 3, 1848
Cornelius Jansen
Bishop. One of the most distinguished among the exegetes of the sixteenth century. Devoted himself especially to checking the advance of Protestantism.
Cornelius Musso
Friar Minor Conventual, Bishop of Bitonto, prominent at the Council of Trent; b. at Piacenza, 1511; d. 1574
Cornelius O'Devany
Bishop of Down and Connor, Ireland, b. about 1532; d. at Dublin, February 11, 1612
Cornelius Richard Anton van Bommel
Bishop of Liege (1790-1852)
Cornelius Ujejski
Polish poet, b. at Beremiany, Galicia, 1823; d. at Cholojewie, 1897
Cornelius Van Zierikzee
B. at Zierikzee (whence he takes his surname), a town in the Province of Zeeland, Holland, about 1405; d. Feb. 21, 1462
Corner or Foundation Stone
Treatment of the blessing of a church cornerstone
Cornice
Uppermost division of the entablature, the representative of the roof consisting of projecting mouldings and blocks
Coronation
Originally the process of the creation of the monarch; but becoming rather the ratification of an accomplished fact
Corporal
Square white linen cloth upon which the Sacred Host and chalice are placed during the celebration of Mass
Corporal and Spiritual Works of Mercy
Virtue influencing one's will to have compassion for, and, if possible, to alleviate another's misfortune
Corporation
Association recognized by civil law and regarded in all ordinary transactions as an individual
Corporation Act of 1661, The
Belongs to the general category of test acts, designed for the express purpose of restricting public offices to members of the Church of England
Corpus Juris Canonici
Corpus here denotes a collection of documents; corpus juris, a collection of laws
Correctories
Text-forms of the Latin Vulgate resulting from the critical emendations as practised during the course of the thirteenth century
Corsica
The third island of the Mediterranean in point of size
Corycus
A titular see of Cilicia Trachaea in Asia Minor
Corydallus
A titular see of Asia Minor
Cosimo Rosselli
Italian fresco painter, b. at Florence, 1439; d. there in 1507
Cosmas
Hymn-writer in the Greek church
Cosmas and Damian, Saints
Twins, physicians, and martyrs (~287)
Cosmas Indicopleustes
Greek traveler and geographer of the first half of the sixth century
Cosmas of Prague
Bohemian historian, b. about 1045, at Prague, Bohemia; d. there, October 21, 1125
Cosmati Mosaic
Style of inlaid ornamental mosaic, twelfth century Europe
Cosmogony
An account of how the universe (cosmos) came into being
Cosmology
The science of the world
Costanzo Giuseppe Beschi
Jesuit missionary (1680-1746)
Cotenna
A titular see of Asia Minor
Cotiaeum
A titular see of Asia Minor
Council of Agde
Local council held in France in 506
Council of Albi
Local council held in 1254
Council of Apt
Held May 14, 1365 in the cathedral of that city
Council of Aranda
Held in 1473 by Alfonso Carillo, Archbishop of Toledo
Council of Avranches
Council was held concerning the troubles caused in the English Church by the murder of St. Thomas Becket
Council of Basle
Convoked by Pope Martin V in 1431, closed at Lausanne in 1449
Council of Chalcedon
Ecumenical Council held in 451
Council of Elvira
Held in fourth century at Elliberis, or Illiberis, in Spain
Council of Ephesus
Third ecumenical council, 431
Council of Frankfort
Convened in the summer of 794
Council of Pisa
On the feast of the Annunciation, 4 patriarchs, 22 cardinals, and 80 bishops assembled in the cathedral of Pisa under the presidency of Cardinal de Malesset, Bishop of Palestrina.
Council of Rimini
Opened early in July,359, with over four hundred bishops, stated the doctrine of the Anomceans, or extreme Arians
Council of Sardica
One of the series of councils called to adjust the doctrinal and other difficulties caused by the Arian heresy
Council of Trent
The nineteenth ecumenical council opened at Trent on Dec. 13, 1545
Council of Vienne
Pope Clement V, by the Bull 'Regnans in coelis' of Aug. 12, 1308, called a general council to meet on Oct. 1, 1310, at Vienne in France
Councils
Legally convened assemblies of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts for the purpose of discussing and regulating church doctrine and discipline
Councils of Aix-en-Provence
List of councils held in Aix-en-Provence
Councils of Alexandria
Local councils held in Egypt in the early Church
Councils of Ancyra
Three councils held in Asia Minor
Councils of Anse
Medieval councils
Councils of Aquileia
Five councils
Councils of Arabia
Two 3rd century councils; held at Bostra in Arabia against Beryllus
Councils of Arras
Church councils
Councils of Attigny
Background of various councils convened at Attigny
Councils of Auxerre
Held under St. Annacharius formulated forty-five canons
Councils of Clovesho
Place at which were held several councils of the Anglo-Saxon Church
Councils of Lyons
Treatment of two councils held in Lyons
Councils of Nicaea
Respectively, the first and seventh Ecumenical Councils
Councils of Orange
Two councils were held at Orange (Arausio), a town in the present department of Vaucluse in southern France.
Councils of Orleans
Six national councils were held at Orleans in the Merovingian period
Councils of Quierzy
Several councils were held at Quierzy, a royal residence under the Carlovingians, but now an insignificant village on the Oise in the French Department of Aisne
Councils of Sens
Number of councils that were held at Sens, France
Count Humbert-Guillaume de Precipiano
B. at Besancon, 1626; d. at Brussels, June 7, 1711
Count Leopoldo Cicognara
Politician, writer on art, and collector of Italian antiquities (1767-1834)
Count Louis de Buade Frontenac
A governor of New France, b. at Paris, 1622; d. at Quebec, Nov. 28, 1698
Count Pietro Verri
Economist, b. at Milan, Dec., 1728; d. there, June 29, 1797
Counter-Reformation
Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation
Counterpoint
In music
Court (in Scripture)
In the English Bible, corresponds to the Hebrew (haver) enclosed space
Court of Arches, The
Was the chief and most ancient court and consistory of the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Canterbury
Covenanters
Name given to subscribers of the two Covenants: the National Covenant of 1638 and the Solemn League and Covenant of 1643
Coventry Patmore
One of the major poets of the nineteenth century, in spite of the small bulk of his verse, b. at Woodford, Essex, July 23, 1823; d. at Lymington, Nov. 26, 1896
Covetousness
Generally, an unreasonable desire for what we do not possess
Cowl
A hood worn in many religious orders
Cracow (Krakow)
Prince-Bishopric and University located in what is now Poland
Creation
The act whereby God brings the entire substance of a thing into existence
Creationism
Commonly, the doctrine that the material of the universe was created by God out of no pre-existing subject; thus opposed to all forms of Pantheism.
Credence
A small table placed within the sanctuary for the purpose of holding cruets, acolytes' candles, and other utensils required for the celebration of the Mass
Cree
The largest and most important Indian tribe of Canada
Creed
In general, a form of belief
Creed, Liturgical Use of
The public use of creeds in connection with the sacraments and other practices
Creeks
A confederacy of Indian tribes and tribal remnants, chiefly of Muskogian stock
Creighton University
An institution located at Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.A., and conducted by the Jesuit Fathers
Cremation
Custom of burning the bodies of the dead
Crescens
A companion of St. Paul during his second Roman captivity
Crescentius
The name of several leaders of the Roman aristocracy in the tenth century, during their opposition to the imperial government of the time
Cresconius
A Latin canonist, flourished probably in the latter half of the 7th century
Crib
The manger in which the infant Savior was laid after his birth is properly that place in the stable or khan where food for domestic animals is placed
Crisostomo Henriquez
A Cistercian religious of the Spanish Congregation; b. at Madrid, 1594; d. December 23, 1632
Crispin and Crispinian, Saints
Martyrs of the Early Church who were beheaded during the reign of Diocletian; the date of their execution is given as October 25, 285 or 286
Crispin of Viterbo, Blessed
Friar Minor Capuchin; b. at Viterbo in 1668; d. at Rome, May 19, 1750
Crispina, Saint
Martyr of Africa; suffered during the Diocletian persecution; b. at Thagara in the Province of Africa; d. by beheading at Thebeste in Numidia, December 5, 304
Cristobal de Castillejo
Spanish poet, b. in Ciudad Rodrigo (Salamanca), 1491; d. in Vienna, June 12, 1556
Croagh Patrick
Croagh Patrick
Croatia
With Slavonia, an autonomous state
Croia
A titular see of Albania
Cronan
Name of several Irish saints
Crosier, The
Ecclesiastical ornament; conferred on bishops at their consecration and on mitred abbots at their investiture; used in performing certain solemn functions
Crosiers, The
A religious order, founded by Theodore de Celles
Cross and Crucifix, The
Examination of the archaeology of the cross; the true cross; liturgical uses; and as objects of devotion
Cross-Bearer
The cleric or minister who carries the processional cross, that is, a crucifix provided with a long staff or handle
Crown of Thorns
Our Savior's Crown of Thorns
Cruelty to Animals
The first ethical writers of pagan antiquity to advocate the duty of kindness towards the brute creation were Pythagoras and Empedocles
Cruet
A small vessel used for containing the wine and water required for the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass
Crusade of the Pastoureaux
One of the most curious of the popular movements inspired by a desire to deliver the Holy Land
Crusades
Expeditions under-taken, in fulfillment of a solemn vow, to deliver the Holy Places from Mohammedan tyranny
Crutched Friars
An order of mendicant friars who went to England in the thirteenth century from Italy, where they had existed for some time
Crypt
The word originally meant a hidden place, natural or artificial, suitable for the concealment of persons or things
Crypt of Lucina
The traditional title of the most ancient section of the catacomb of St. Callistus
Cuba
The largest and westernmost island of the West Indies
Culdees
Word meaning companion, or even spouse, of God; religious communities in Ireland and Scotland; disappeared before the Reformation
Cunegundes, Blessed
Poor Clare and patroness of Poland and Lithuania; b. in 1224; d. July 24, 1292, at Sandeck, Poland
Cupola
A spherical ceiling, or a bowl-shaped vault, rising like an inverted cup over a circular, square, or multangular building or any part of it
Curate
Literally, one who has the cure (care) or charge of souls, in which sense it is yet used by the Church of England,
Curator
A person legally appointed to administer the property of another, who is unable to undertake its management himself
Cure of Souls
Technically, the exercise of a clerical office involving the instruction and sanctification, through the sacraments, of the faithful
Curium
A titular see of Cyprus, suppressed in 1222 by the papal legate, Pelagius
Cursing
In its popular acceptation cursing is often confounded, especially in the phrase
Cursor Mundi
A Middle-English poem of nearly 30,000 lines containing a sort of summary of universal history
Cursores Apostolici
Latin title of the ecclesiastical heralds or pursuivants pertaining to the papal court
Curubis
A titular see of Africa Proconsularis
Cusae
A titular see of Egypt
Cush
Name of a race, but generally understood to also designate an individual, the progenitor of the ancient nations known as Cushites
Cuspinian
Distinguished humanist and statesman, b. at Schweinfurt, Lower Franconia, in 1473; d. at Vienna, April 19, 1529
Custom (in Canon Law)
An unwritten law introduced by the continuous acts of the faithful with the consent of the legitimate legislator
Custos
(1) an under-sacristan (2) a superior or an official in the Franciscan Order
Cuthbert (Abbot of Wearmouth)
Abbot of Wearmouth, a pupil of the Venerable Bede (d. 735)
Cuthbert (Archbishop of Canterbury)
Archbishop of Canterbury, date of birth not known; d. October 25, 758
Cuthbert Mayne, Blessed
Martyr, b. at Youlston, near Barnstaple, Devonshire (baptized March 20, 1543-4); d. at Launceston, Cornwall, Nov. 29, 1577
Cuthbert Tunstall
Bishop of London, later of Durham, b. at Hackforth, Yorkshire, in 1474; d. at Lambeth Palace, Nov. 18, 1559
Cuthbert, Saint
Bishop of Lindisfarne, patron of Durham, b. about 635; d. March 20, 687
Cybistra
A titular see of Cappadocia in Asia Minor
Cyclades
A group of islands in the Aegean Sea
Cydonia
A titular see of Crete
Cyme
Titular see of Asia Minor
Cynewulf
Author of certain Anglo-Saxon poems still extant.
Cynic School of Philosophy
Founded at Athens about 400 B.C., continued in existence until about 200 B.C.
Cyprian and Saint Justina, Saint
Christians of Antioch who suffered martyrdom during the persecution of Diocletian at Nicomedia, September 26, 304
Cyprian of Carthage, Saint
Bishop and martyr; of the date of the saint's birth and of his early life nothing is known
Cyprian, Saint
Bishop of Toulon, b. at Marseilles in 476; d. Oct. 3, 546
Cyprien Tanguay
Genealogist, b. at Quebec, 1819; d. 1902
Cyprus
An island in the Eastern Mediterranean, at the entrance of the Gulf of Alexandretta
Cyrenaic School of Philosophy
Flourished from about 400 to about 300 B.C., and had for its most distinctive tenet Hedonism, or the doctrine that pleasure is the chief good
Cyrene
A titular see of Northern Africa
Cyril and Methodius, Saints
The Apostles of the Slays, were brothers, born in Thessalonica, in 827 and 826 respectively
Cyril of Alexandria, Saint
Doctor of the Church
Cyril of Constantinople, Saint
General of the Carmelites, d. about 1235
Cyril of Jerusalem, Saint
Bishop of Jerusalem and Doctor of the Church, b. about 315; d. probably March 18, 386
Cyril Sieni
Missionary bishop, b. in Catalonia, date of birth unknown; d. after 1799, place and exact date equally uncertain
Cyrrhus
A titular see of Syria
Cyrus and John, Saints
Celebrated martyrs of the Coptic Church
Cyrus of Alexandria
A Melchite patriarch of that see in the seventh century, and one of the authors of Monothelism; d. about 641
Cyzicus
A titular see of Asia Minor
Czech Literature
Czech literature starts about 863 when Sts. Cyril and Methodius converted to Christianity and became participants in the great work of civilization
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Last updated: June 18 2009.