Philosopher and theologian (1796-1867)
Bautain, LOUIS-EUGENE-MARIE, philosopher and theologian, b. at Paris, February 17, 1796; d. there, October 15, 1867. After a course at the Ecole Normale, where he was influenced by Cousin and Jouffroy, he became (1819) professor of philosophy at Strasburg. Three years later he took up the study of medicine and finally that of theology and was ordained priest (1828). As director of the seminary at Strasburg, he at first won distinction by his work in apologetics, especially against atheism and materialism. He was chiefly interested, however, in the problem of the relations between faith and reason, concerning which he accepted the views of Fideism and Traditionalism, and reduced to a minimum the function of reason. Divine revelation, he claimed, is the only source of knowledge and certitude. He was consequently obliged to sign (November 18, 1835) six propositions containing the Catholic doctrine on faith and reason. After the examination at Rome of his work, "Philosophie du christianisme" (Paris, 1835), Bautain signed (September 8, 1840) six other propositions differing but slightly from those of 1835. Finally, in obedience to the Congregation of Bishops and Regulars, he promised (April 26, 1844) not to teach that the existence of God, the spirituality and immortality of the soul, the principles of meta-physics, and the motives which make revelation credible are beyond the reach of unaided reason. Bautain was appointed Vicar-General of Paris (1850) and taught at the Sorbonne (1853-62). His works include: "De l'enseignement de la philosophie au 19me siecle" (Strasburg, 1833); "Psychologie experimentale" (ib., 1839); "Philosophie morale" (ib., 1842); "La religion et la liberte" (Paris, 1848); "La morale de l'Evangile" (ib., 1855); "La philosophie des lois" (ib., 1860); "La Conscience" (ib., 1868).
E. A. PACE