Some victims of religious persecution in Ireland begun under Henry VIII (1540) through (approximately) 1713.
Irish Confessors and martyrs.-The period covered by this article embraces that between the years 1540 and (approximately) 1713. Religious persecution in Ireland began under Henry VIII, when the local Parliament adopted acts establishing the king's ecclesiastical supremacy, abolishing the pope's jurisdiction, and suppressing religious houses. The act against the pope came into operation 1 November, 1537. Its penalties were sufficiently terrible, but the license of those enforcing it was still more terrible. When they had been at work little over a year the Bishop of Derry wrote to Pope Paul III that the King of England's deputy and his adherents, refusing to acknowledge the pope, were burning houses, destroying churches, ravishing maids, robbing and killing unoffending persons. They kill, he said, all priests who pray for the pope or refuse to erase his name from the canon of the Mass, and they torture preachers who do not repudiate his authority. It would fill a book to detail their cruelty. Intolerable as these evils seemed, they were aggravated beyond measure, three years later, when the general suppression of religious houses was superadded. Then ensued the persecution which the Four Masters likened to that of the early Church under the pagan emperors, declaring that it was exceeded by no other, and could be described only by eyewitnesses. The extirpation was so thorough that even remembrance of the victims was effaced. In the published catalog of Irish martyrs submitted recently to the Congregation of Rites, there are but two cases belonging to Henry's reign. The absence of records for this period is easily explained. The destruction of all kinds of ecclesiastical property, and documents especially, accounts for much, since few but church-men could make such records; but it is perhaps a more probable explanation that scarcely any were made, as it was neither safe nor practicable to have or transmit what reflected upon government under Tudor despotism. Few memorials could be committed to paper before places of refuge had been secured in foreign countries. Then they were taken down from the lips of aged refugees, and as might be expected they exhibit the vagueness and confusion of dates and incidents to which personal reminiscences are subject when spread over long and unsettled periods.
For the time of the suppression there is a partial narrative in the recital of an old Trinitarian friar, written down by one of his brethren, Father Richard Goldie or Goold (Goldaeus), an Irish professor at the University of Alcali. According to this account, on the first announcement of the king's design, Theobald (Burke?), provincial of the order, came to Dublin with eight other doctors to maintain the pope's supremacy. They were cast into prison; Theobald's heart was torn from his living body; Philip, a writer, was scourged, put into boots filled with oil and salt, roasted till the flesh came away from the bone, and then beheaded; the rest were hanged or beheaded; Cornelius, Bishop of Limerick, was beheaded there; Cormac was shot and stoned to death at Galway; Maurice and Thomas, brothersgerman, hanged on their way to Dublin; Stephen, stabbed near Wexford; Peter of Limerick and Geoffrey, beheaded; John Macabrigus, lay brother, drowned; Raymond, ex-superior, dragged at a horse's tail in Dublin; Tadhg O'Brien of Thomond, torn to pieces in the viceroy's presence at Bombriste bridge between Limerick and Kilmallock; the Dublin community, about fifty, put to various deaths; those of Adare, cut down, stabbed, or hanged; those of Galway, twenty, burned to death in their convent or, by another account, six were thrown into a lime-kiln, the rest weighted with stones and cast into the sea; those of Drogheda, forty, slain, hanged, or thrown into a pit; at Limerick, over fifty butchered in choir or thrown with weights into the Shannon; at Cork and Kilmallock, over ninety slain by the sword or dismembered, including William Burke, John O'Hogan, Michael, Richard, and GiollaLrighde. This is the earliest narrative as regards period. It deals only with the Trinitarians. It had the misfortune to be worked up by Lopez, a fanciful Spanish writer, and consequently has incurred perhaps more discredit than it deserves. The promoters of the cause of the Irish martyrs have not extracted any names from it. Nevertheless, the version given by O'Sullevan Bearr in his "Patriciana Decas", despite many apparent inaccuracies and exaggerations, contains in its main statements a not improbable picture of the experiences of this single order when the agents of rapine and malignity were let loose upon the members. It is as a cry from the torture chamber, expressing the agony of a victim who loses the power to detail accurately the extent of his sufferings or the manner of their infliction.
The first general catalog is that of Father John Houling, S.J., compiled in Portugal between 1588 and 1599. It is styled a very brief abstract of certain cases and is directed towards canonization of the eleven bishops, eleven priests, and forty-four lay persons whom it commemorates as sufferers for the Faith by death, chains, or exile under Elizabeth. Cornelius O'Devany, the martyred Bishop of Down and Connor, took up the record about the point where Houling broke off, and he continued it until his own imprisonment in 1611. Shortly before that time he forwarded a copy to Father Holywood, S.J., desiring him to take steps to have the lives of those noted therein illustrated at length and preserved from oblivion. O'Devany's catalogue was in David Rothe's hands while he was preparing the "Processus Martyrialis", published, in 1619, as the third part of his " Analecta", which still remains a most important contribution to the subject. During the next forty years Copinger (1620), O'Sullevan Bearr (1621 and 1629), Molanus (1629), Morison (1659), and others sent forth from the press works devoted either wholly or in part to advancing the claims of Irish martyrs to recognition and veneration. In 1669 Antony Bruodin, O.S.F., published at Prague a thick octavo volume of about 800 pages, entitled "Propugnaculum Catholicae Veritatis", a catalogue of Irish martyrs under Henry VIII, Edward VI, Elizabeth, and James, containing notices of about 200 martyrs, with an index of 164 persons whose Christian names come first as in a martyrology. Bruodin based his work on Rothe's "Analecta", but he made large additions from other writers, as Good, Bourchier, Gonzaga, Baressus, Sanders, Wadding, Alegambe, and Nadasi, and in particular from a manuscript ascribed to Matthew Creagh, Vicar-General of Killaloe, which had been brought to the Irish Franciscans of Prague in 1660.
Practically nothing was done for about two centuries after Bruodin's publication. A proposal to take up the cause of Primate Oliver Plunkett within a few years of his martyrdom was discountenanced by the Holy See, lest at that critical juncture such action should become an occasion of political trouble in England. After the English Revolution and the commencement of the new era of oppression that succeeded the capitulation of Limerick, it was manifest that any movement towards canonization of the victims of laws still in force would result in merciless reprisals on the part of the ascendancy. At length, in 1829, the last political hindrances were removed by Catholic Emancipation, but over thirty years were allowed to pass unmarked by any action, either because more immediate demands pressed upon the energies of the Catholic community or because, during the long period for which the matter had been laid aside, the sources of trustworthy information had become so inaccessible or forgotten that the task of accumulating evidence seemed too formidable to undertake. In 1861 Dr. Moran, then Vice-Rector of the Irish College, Rome, and subsequently in succession Bishop of Ossory and Cardinal Archbishop of Sydney, reopened the question by his life of Oliver Plunkett, the first of a series of important historical publications, in which he covered the whole period of Irish persecutions from Henry VIII to Charles II. All these publications were effectively, if not professedly, directed towards hastening the Church's solemn recognition of the martyrs. The first of these writings (1861) expressed the hope that the day was not far distant when the long afflicted Church of Ireland would be consoled by the canonization of Oliver Plunkett. In 1884, when the last of them, a reissue of Rothe's "Analecta ", was published, the intermediate advance had been so great that the editor, then Rothe's successor in Ossory, noted the expression of a wish both in Ireland and abroad "that, although our whole people might justly be regarded as a nation of martyrs, yet some few names, at least, among the most remarkable for constancy and heroism would be laid before the Sacred Congregation of Rites and, if found worthy, be enrolled among the privileged martyrs of Holy Church. " While Dr. Moran was thus engaged, Major Myles O'Reilly also entered the long neglected field, and in 1868 he published a collection of memorials in which he brought together, from all the original sources his great industry could reach, biographies of those who suffered for the Faith in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries. This collection was made with both zeal and discrimination; it was the first general compilation since Bruodin's, and, coming down to a later date, it contained twice the number of notices in the former one. As a result, in great measure, of these several publications, the case was brought to such a point, about ten years after the reissue of Rothe's " Analecta ", that the ecclesiastical authorities were in a position to make preparations for holding the processus ordinarius informativus, the diocesan inquiry which is a preliminary in the process of canonization. The work of collecting evidence, greatly facilitated by the previous labors of Moran and O'Reilly, was entrusted to Father Denis Murphy, S.J. He, unhappily, did not live to submit his testimony; but before his death he had reduced to order a great mass of materials extracted from a larger number of writers than had been used by O'Reilly. The number of individual notices is, however, much less, since Father Murphy excluded, with one or two exceptions, all those whose trials did not culminate in death. His materials were published in 1896, under the title of " Our Martyrs", and the record begun by Father Houling was thus, after three hundred years, completed by his brother Jesuit in form to be submitted in a regular process of canonization.
The usual practice of conducting the preliminary process in the diocese where the martyrs suffered would have entailed the erecting of a tribunal in every diocese in Ireland, a course attended with no advantages. The Archbishop of Dublin, therefore, at the united request of all the Irish bishops, accepted the responsibility of conducting a general investigation for the whole country. But, before further progress could be made, certain unforeseen causes of delay arose which were not removed until the end of the year 1903. In December of that year the vice-postulator issued his requests for the attendance of witnesses in the February following. The initial session was opened by the Archbishop of Dublin, 15 February, 1904. Between that date and 3 August, when the taking of evidence in Ireland was completed, sixty sessions had been held. The testimony of Cardinal Moran was taken by commission in Sydney When it arrived in Ireland meetings were resumed, 23 October, and continued for some twenty further sessions to complete the return, a transcript of the evidence with exhibits of books and documents. This work was brought to a conclusion at Christmas, and on 5 February, 1905, the full return of the inquiry was delivered to the Congregation of Rites. The number of sessions held was about eighty, in all of which the Archbishop of Dublin presided. Evidence was taken in respect of about three hundred and forty persons, with a view to establish the existence of a traditional belief among learned and pious Catholics that many persons suffered death for the Catholic Faith in Ireland under the penal laws; that these persons did, in fact, suffer martyrdom in defense of the Catholic Faith and of the pope's spiritual authority as Vicar of Christ; and that there is a sincere desire among Irish Catholics, in Ireland and elsewhere, to see these martyrs solemnly recognized by the Church. The chief portion of the evidence was necessarily that derived from records, printed or written. In addition, witnesses testified to the public repute of martyrdom, and traditions to that effect preserved in families, religious orders, various localities, and the country at large, with a particular statement in every case as to the source of the information furnished by the witness. Subsequent to this inquiry the further minor process (processiculus), to collect writings attributed to some of the martyrs, was held January-March, 1907.
The investigation of the claims to the title of martyr made for those who suffered under the Irish penal enactments since 1537, is attended by difficulties that do not arise in the case of their fellow-sufferers in England, difficulties due to the historical situation and to the character of the available evidence. Not more than one-third of Ireland was subject to the rule of Henry VIII when he undertook to detach the island from the Catholic Church. The remainder was governed by hereditary lords under native institutions. The king's deputy at times obtained acknowledgment of the over-lordship supposed to be conferred by the Bull "Laudabiliter"; but the acknowledgment was so little valued that the population was commonly classified as the king's subjects and the Irish enemies, not, as yet, the Irish rebels. The Church, however, was the Church of Ireland, not the Church of the English Pale, and the claim to Supreme Headship of the Church entailed the effective reduction of the whole island to civil obedience, which, as then understood, required acceptance of the whole English system of laws and manners. Hence, it is not always easy to discern how far the fate of an individual resulted from his fidelity to religion, and how far from defense of ancestral institutions. Again, the evidence is not always satisfactory, for reasons already mentioned. The public records are very defective, as in a country that has experienced two violent revolutions, but the loss so caused might possibly be over-estimated. No large proportion of those put to death had been brought before a regular court. There was a general immunity from consequences which encouraged captains of roving bands and stationary garrisons, provost-martials, and all that class, to carry out the intention of the law without its forms. In such cases there are no records. During the year of the Armada a Spanish ship made prize of a Dublin vessel bound for France. A Cistercian monk and a Franciscan friar were found on board. They said they were the sole survivors of two large monasteries in the North of Ireland which had been burned with the rest of the inmates. There seems to be no other mention of this atrocity.
The list which follows (p. signifying priest; l., lay-man) includes the names of those persons only in respect of whom evidence was taken at the inquiry held in Dublin. The case of Primate Oliver Plunkett has already been conducted successfully through the Apostolic Process by Cardinal Logue, his successor:
(1) Under King Henry VIII.-
1540: The guardian and friars, Franciscan Convent, Monaghan, beheaded.
1541: Robert and other Cistercian monks, St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin, imprisoned and put to death; as the Cistercians of Dublin surrendered their house and its possessions peaceably, there is possibly confusion as to this instance.
(2) Under Queen Elizabeth.-
1565: Conacius Macuarta (Conn McCourt) and Roger MacCongaill (McConnell), Franciscans, flogged to death, Armagh, 16 December, for refusing to acknowledge the queen's supremacy.
1575: John Lochran, Donagh O'Rorke, and Edmund Fitzsimon, Franciscans, hanged, 21 January, Downpatrick; Fergall Ward, Franciscan guardian, Armagh, hanged, 28 April, with his own girdle.
1577: Thomas Courcy, vicar-general at Kinsale, hanged, 30 March; William Walsh (q. v.) Cistercian, Bishop of Meath, died, 4 January, in exile at Alcala.
1578: Patrick O'Hely (q. v.), Bishop of Mayo, and Cornelius O'Rorke, p., Franciscans, tortured and hanged, 22 August, Kilmallock; David Hurley, dean of Emly, died in prison; Thomas Moeran, dean of Cork, taken in the exercise of his functions and executed.
1579: Thaddaeus Daly and his companion, O.S.F., hanged, drawn, and quartered at Limerick, 1 January. The bystanders reported that his head when cut off distinctly uttered the words: "Lord, show me Thy ways." Edmund Tanner (q.v.), S.J., Bishop of Cork, died, 4 June, in prison at Dublin; John O'Dowd, p., O.S.F., refused to reveal a confession, put to death at Elphin by having his skull compressed with a twisted cord; Thomas O'Herlahy (q.v.), Bishop of Ross. 1580: Edmund MacDonnell (q.v.), p., S.J., 16 March, Cork (but the year should be 1575 and the name perhaps O'Donnell); Laurence O'Moore, p., Oliver Plunkett, gentleman, and William Walsh or Willick, an Englishman, tortured and hanged, 11 November, after the surrender of Dun-an-oir in Kerry; Daniel O'Neilan p., O.S.F., fastened round the waist with a rope and thrown with weights tied to his feet from one of the town-gates at Youghal, finally fastened to a mill-wheel and torn to pieces, 28 March. He is obviously the person whom Mooney commemorates under the name O'Duillian, assigning the date, 22 April, 1569, from hearsay; Daniel Hanrichan, Maurice O'Scanlan, and Philip O'Shee (O'Lee), priests, O.S.F., beaten with sticks and slain, 6 April, before the altar of Lislachtin monastery, Co. Kerry; the prior at the Cistercian monastery of Graeg, and his companions. Murphy, quoting O'Sullevan, says the monastery was Graiguenamanagh; O'Sullevan names the place Seri-pons, Jerpoint.
1581: Nicholas Nugent, chief justice, David Sutton, John Sutton, Thomas Eustace, justice, Eustace, William Wogan, Robert Sherlock, John Clinch, Thomas Netherfield, or Netterville, Robert Fitzgerald, gentleman of the Pale, and Walter Lakin (Layrmus), executed on a charge of complicity in rebellion with Lord Baltinglass; Matthew Lamport, described as a parish priest (pastor) of Dublin Diocese, but more probably a baker (pistor) of Wexford, executed for harboring Baltinglass and Father Rochford, S.J., Robert Meyler, Edward Cheevers, John O'Lahy, and Patrick Canavan, sailors of Wexford, hanged, drawn, and quartered, 5 July, for conveying priests, a Jesuit, and laymen out of Ireland; Patrick Hayes, ship-owner of Wexford, charged with aiding bishops, priests, and others, died in prison; Richard French, p., Ferns Diocese, died in prison; Nicholas Fitzgerald, Cistercian, hanged, drawn, and quartered, September, at Dublin.
1582: Phelim O'Hara and Henry Delahoyde, O.S.F., of Moyne, Co. Mayo, hanged and quartered, 1 May; Thaddaeus O'Meran, or O'Morachue, O.S.F., guardian of Enniscorthy; Phelim O'Corra (apparently Phelim O'Hara, above); AEneas Penny, parish priest of Killatra (Killasser, Co. Mayo), slain by soldiers while saying Mass, 4 May; Roger O'Donnellan, Cahill McGoran, Peter McQuillan, Patrick O'Kenna, James Pillan, priests, and Roger O'Hanlon (more correctly McHenlea, in Curry), lay brother, O.S.F., died, 13 February, Dublin Castle, but the date can scarcely be correct for all; Henry O'Fremlamhaidh (anglicized Frawley); John Wallis, p., died, 20 January, in prison at Worcester; Donagh O'Reddy, parish priest of Coleraine, hanged and transfixed with swords, 12 June, at the altar of his church.
1584: Dermot O'Hurley (q. v.), Archbishop of Cashel; Gelasius O'Cullenan, O.Cist., Abbot of Boyle, and his companion, variously named Eugene Cronius and Hugh or John Mulcheran (? Eoghan O'Maoilchiarain), either Abbot of Trinity Island, Co. Roscommon, or a secular priest, hanged, 21 November, at Dublin; John O'Daly, p., O.S.F., trampled to death by cavalry; Eleanor Birmingham, widow of Bartholomew Ball, denounced by her son, Walter Ball, Mayor of Dublin, died in prison; Thaddaeus Clancy, 15 September, near Listowel.
1585: Richard Creagh (q. v.), Archbishop of Armagh, poisoned, 14 October, in the Tower of London-he is included amongst the 242 Pnetermissi in the article ENGLISH CONFESSORS AND MARTYRS; Maurice Kenraghty (q. v.), p.; Patrick O'Connor and Malachy O'Kelly, O.Cist., hanged and quartered, 19 May, at Boyle.
1586: Maurice, or Murtagh, O'Brien, Bishop of Emly, died in prison at Dublin; Donagh O'Murheely (O'Murthuile, wrongly identified with O'Hurley) and a companion, O.S.F., stoned and tortured to death at Muckross, Killarney. 1587: John Cornelius, O.S.F., of Askeaton; another John Cornelius, S.J., surnamed O'Mahony, born in England of Irish parents from Kinelmeky, Co. Cork, is included among the venerabiles of the English list; Walter Farrell, O.S.F., Askeaton, hanged with his own girdle. 1588: Dermot O'Mulrony, p., O.S.F., Brother Thomas, and another Franciscan of Galbally, Co. Limerick, put to death there 21 March; Maurice Eustace (q. v.), Jesuit novice, hanged and quartered, 9 June, Dublin; John O'Molloy, Cornelius O'Dogherty, and Geoffrey Farrell, Franciscan priests hanged, drawn, and quartered, 15 December, at Abbeyleix; Patrick Plunkett, knight, hanged and quartered, 6 May, Dublin; Peter Miller, B.D., Diocese of Ferns, tortured, hanged, and quartered, 4 October, 1588; Peter (or Patrick) Meyler, executed at Galway; not-withstanding the different places of martyrdom assigned, these two names may be those of the same person, a native of Wexford executed at Galway; Patrick O'Brady, O.S.F., prior at Monaghan-Murphy, on slender grounds, supposes him to be the guardian put to death in 1540, but Copinger and after him Curry, in his "Civil Wars in Ireland", state that six friars were slain in the monastery of Moynihan (Monaghan) under Elizabeth; Thaddus O'Boyle, guardian of Donegal, slain there, 13 April, by soldiers. 1590: Matthew O'Leyn, p., O.S.F., 6 March, Kilcrea; Christopher Roche, 1., died, 13 December, under torture, Newgate, London. 1591: Terence Magennis, Magnus O'Fredliney or O'Todhry, Loughlin og Mac O'Cadha (? Mac Eochadha, Keogh), Franciscans of Multifarnham, died in prison. 1594: Andrew Strich, p., Limerick, died in Dublin Castle. 1597: John Stephens, p., Dublin province, apparently chaplain to the O'Byrnes of Wicklow, hanged and quartered, 4 September, for saying Mass; Walter Fernan, p., torn on the rack, 12 March, at Dublin. 1599: George Power, Vicar-General of Ossory, died in prison. 1600: John Walsh, Vicar-General of Dublin, died in prison at Chester; Patrick O'Hea, 1., charged with harbouring priests, died in prison, 4 December, Dublin-probably the Patrick Hayes of 1581 (supra) ; James Dudall (Dowdall, q.v.,), died either 20 November or 13 August, Exeter; Nicholas Young, p., died, Dublin Castle.
1601: Redmond O'Gallagher, Bishop of Derry, slain by soldiers, 15 March, near Dungiven; Daniel, or Donagh, O'Mollony, Vicar-General of Killaloe, died of torture, 24 April, Dublin Castle; John O'Kelly, p., died, 15 May, in prison; Donagh O'Cronin, clerk, hanged and disembowelled, Cork; Bernard Moriarty, dean of Ardagh and Vicar-General of Dublin, having his thighs broken by soldiers, died in prison, Dublin. 1602: Dominic Collins, lay brother, S.J., hanged, drawn, and quartered, 31 October, Youghal. The following Dominicans suffered under Elizabeth (1558-1603), but the dates are uncertain: Father MacFerge, prior, and twenty-four friars of Coleraine, thirty-two members of the community of Derry, slain there the same night, two priests and seven novices of Limerick and Kilmallock, assembled in 1602 with forty Benedictine, Cistercian, and other monks, at Scattery Island in the Shannon to be deported under safe conduct in a man-of-war, were cast overboard at sea. To this year, 1602, seems to belong the death of Eugene MacEgan, styled Bishop-designate of Ross, of which he was vicar Apostolic, mortally wounded while officiating in the Catholic army. There was no Catholic army on foot in 1606, at which date his name appears in the official list. He was buried at Timoleague.
(3) Under James I and Charles I (1604-1648).-
1606: Bernard O'Carolan, p., executed by martial law, Good Friday; Eugene O'Gallagher, abbot, and Bernard O'Trevir, prior, of the Cistercians of Assaroe, Ballyshannon, slain there by soldiers; Sir John Burke of Brittas, County Limerick, for rescuing and defending with arms a priest seized by soldiers, executed at Limerick, 20 Dec., 1606. The date is accurately known from contemporary letters printed in Hogan's "Ibernia Ignatiana".
1607: Niall O'Boyle, O.S.F., beheaded or hanged, 15 Jan., Co. Tyrone; John O'Luin, O.P., hanged at Derry; Patrick O'Derry, p., O.S.F., hanged, drawn, and quartered at Lifford (but according to Bruodin, 6 January, 1618); Francis Helam or Helan, p., O.S.F., apprehended saying Mass in Drogheda, and imprisoned; Dermot Bruodin, O.S.F., tortured at Limerick, released at the intervention of the Earl of Thomond, he died of years and labours at Ennis (9 August, 1617, according to Bruodin).
1608: Donagh (in religion, William) O'Luin, O.P., prior of Derry, hanged and quartered there.
1610: John Lune, p., Ferns Diocese, hanged and quartered, 12 November, Dublin.
1612: Cornelius O'Devany (q. v.), O.S.F., Bishop of Down and Connor, executed with Patrick O'Lochran, p., Cork Diocese, 1 February, Dublin.
1614: William McGillacunny (MacGiolla Coinigh), O.P., executed at Coleraine.
1617: Thomas Fitzgerald, p., O.S.F., died in prison, 12 July, Dublin.
1618: John Honan, p., O.S.F., tortured, hanged, and quartered, 14 October, Dublin.
1621: Francis Tailler, alderman, Dublin, died a prisoner in the Castle, 30 January; James Eustace, O.Cist., hanged and quartered, 6 September.
1628: Edmund Dungan, Bishop of Down and Connor, died, 2 November, Dublin Castle.
1631: Paul (Patrick) Fleming, p., O.S.F., put to death by heretics, 13 November, at Benesabe, Bohemia, with his companion, Matthew Hore.
1633: Arthur MacGeoghegan, p., O.P., hanged, drawn, and quartered, 27 November, Tyburn.
1639: John Meagh, p., S.J., shot, 31 May, by the Swedish army near Guttenberg, Bohemia.
1641: Peter O'Higgin, O.P., prior at Naas, hanged, 24 March, Dublin.
1642: Philip Clery, p.; Hilary Conroy p., O.S.F., but most probably this is the Hilary Conroy, O.S.F., chaplain to Ormond's regiment, hanged at Gowran in 1650 by the Cromwellians; Fergal Ward, O.S.F., and Cornelius O'Brien, hanged on board ship in the Shannon, by Parliamentarians, October; Francis O'Mahony, O.S.F., guardian at Cork, tortured and hanged, regaining consciousness, he was again hanged with his girdle; Thomas Aquinas of Jesus, p., O.D.C., hanged, 6 July, Drogheda; Angelus of St. Joseph, O.D.C.; Robert (in religion, Malachy) O'Shiel, p., O.Cist., hanged, 4 May, Newry; Edmund Hore and John Clancy, priests, Waterford Diocese, put to death, March, at Dungarvan ; Raymund Keogh, p., O.P., Stephen Petit, O.P., prior at Mullingar, shot while hearing confessions on the battlefield; Cormac Egan, lay brother, O.P.
1643: Peter of the Mother of God, lay brother, O.D.C.
1644: Cornelius O'Connor and Eugene O'Daly, O.SS.T., drowned at sea by a Parliamentarian commander, 11 January; Christopher Ultan or Donlevy, p., O.S.F., died in Newgate, London.
1645: Hugh MacMahon, 1., and Conor Maguire, Baron of Enniskillen, executed for complicity in the outbreak of the Confederate War; Henry White, p., hanged at Rathconnell, Co. Meath (but before this year, if by Sir C. Coote, as stated); Edmund Mulligan, p., O. Cist., in July, near Clones, slain by Parliamentarians; Malachy O'Queely (q. v.), Archbishop of Tuam; Thaddaeus O'Connell, p., O.S.A., executed by Parliamentarians after the battle of Sligo; John Flaverty, p., O.P.
1647: At the storming of the Rock of Cashel by Inchiquin, 15 September, Richard Barry, p., O.P., William Boyton, p., S.J., Richard Butler, p., O.S.F., James Saul, lay brother, O.S.F., Elizabeth Carney, Sister Margaret, a Dominican tertiary, Theobald Stapleton, p., Edward Stapleton, p., Thomas Morrissey and many others, priests and women, were slain in the church.
1648: Gerald FitzGibbon, cleric, and David Fox, lay brother at Kilmallock, Dominic O'Neaghten, lay brother, Roscommon, Peter Costello, p., sub-prior, Straid, Co. Mayo, all Dominicans; Andrew Hickey, p., O.S.F., hanged near Adare.
(4) Commonwealth (1649-1659).-
1649: Robert Netterville, p., S.J., died at Drogheda, 19 June, of a severe beating with sticks; John Bath, p., S. J., and his brother Thomas, secular priest, Dominic Dillon, O.P., prior at Urlar, Richard Oveton, O.P., prior at Athy, Peter Taaffe, O.S.A., prior at Drogheda, slain in Drogheda massacre; Bernard Horumley (? Gormley), p., O.S.F., hanged, Drogheda; Raymund Stafford, p., Paul Synnott, p., John Esmond, p., Peter Stafford, p., Didacus Cheevers and Joseph Rochford, lay brothers, Franciscans, slain in Wexford massacre; James O'Reilly, p., O.P., slain near Clonmel; William Lynch, p., O.P., hanged.
1650: Bcetius Egan, O.S.F., Bishop of Ross, celebrated for exhorting the garrison of Carrigadrehid Castle to maintain their post against Broghill, dismembered and hanged; Miler Magrath (Father Michael of the Rosary), p., O.P., hanged, Clonmel; Francis Fitzgerald, p., O.S.F., hanged, Cork; Walter de Wallis, p., O.S.F., and Antony Musus (? Hussey), p., O.S.F., hanged, Mullingar; John Dormer, O.S.F., died in prison, Dublin; Nicholas Ugan, or Ulagan, O.S.F., hanged with his girdle; Thomas Plunkett and twelve other Franciscans, Eugene O'Teman, O.S.F., flogged and cut to pieces by soldiers.
1651: Franciscans: Denis O'Neilan, p., hanged, Inchicronan, Co. Clare; Thaddaeus_ O'Carrighy, p., hanged near Ennis; Hugh McKeon, p., died in prison, Athlone; Roger de Mara (MacNamara), p., shot and hanged, Clare Castle; Daniel Clanchy and Jeremiah O'Nerehiny (Nerny), lay brothers, Quin, hanged ; Philip Flasberry, hanged near Dublin; Francis Sullivan, p., shot in a cave, Co. Kerry, December; William Hickey, p., hanged; Dominicans: Terence Albert O'Brien (q. v.), O.P., Bishop of Emly; John Wolfe, p., hanged, Limerick; John O'Cuilin (Collins), p , beheaded; William O'Connor, prior at Clonmel, beheaded, and Thomas O'Higgin, p., hanged, Clonmel; Bernard O'Ferrall, p., slain, his brother Laurence, p., hanged, Longford; Vincent Gerald Dillon, chaplain to Irish troops in England, died in prison, York; Ambrose .zEneas O'Cahill, p., cut to pieces by cavalry, Cork; Donagh Dubh (Black) and James Moran, lay brothers; laymen: Louis O'Ferrall, died in prison, Athlone; Charles O'Dowd, hanged; Donagh O'Brien, burned alive; Sir Patrick Purcell, Sir Geoffrey Galway, Thomas Strich, mayor, Dominic Fanning, ex-mayor, Daniel O'Higgin, hanged after surrender of Limerick; Henry O'Neill, Theobald de Burgo.
1652: Secular priests: Roger Ormilius (? Gormley) and Hugh Garrighy, hanged, Co. Clare; Cornelius MacCarthy, Co. Kerry; Bernard Fitzpatrick, Ossory Diocese; Franciscans hanged: Eugene O'Cahan, guardian at Ennis, Sliabh Luachra, Anthony Broder, deacon, near Tuam, Bonaventure de Burgo, Nielan Locheran, p., Derry. Anthony O'Ferrall, p., Tulsk, John O'Ferrall; Edmund O'Bern, p., O.P., beheaded after torture, Jamestown; laymen hanged: Thaddaeus O'Conor Sligo, Boyle; John O'Conor Kerry, Tralee; Thaddaeus O'Conor of Bealnamelly in Connaught; Bernard McBriody; Edmund Butler, Dublin; Brigid D'Arcy, wife of Florence Fitzpatrick; Conn O'R9rke, slain after quarter given.
1653: Dominicans: Thaddaeus Moriarty, prior at Tralee, hanged, Killarney; Bernard O'Kelly, p. or lay brother, Galway; David Roche, p., sold into slavery, St. Kitts; Honoria Burke and her maid, Honoria Magan, tertiaries, Burrishoole; Daniel Delany, P.P., Arklow, hanged, Gorey.
1654: Bernard Conney, O.S.F., died in Galway jail; Mary Roche, Viscountess Fermoy, Cork; William Tirry, p., Augustinian hermit, probably in Co. Cork.
1655: Daniel O'Brien, dean of Ferns, Luke Bergin, O.Cist., and James Murchu, hanged, 14 April.
(5) The Restoration Onwards.-
1665: Raymund O'Moore, p., O.P., Dublin;
1679: Felix O'Conor, p., O.P., Sligo;
1691: Gerald Fitzgibbon, p., O.P., Listowel; 1695: John O'Murrough, p., O.P., Cork ;
1704: Clement O'Colgan, p., O.P., Derry;
1707: Daniel McDonnell, p., O.P., Galway; Felix McDowell, p., O.P., Dublin;
1711 (or thereabouts): James O'Hegarty, p., Derry Diocese;
1713: Dominic McEgan, p., O.P., Dublin.
Forty Cistercians of Monasternenagh, Co. Limerick, may be the monks mentioned at 1602, though the manner of death is stated differently; Daniel O'Hanan, 1., died in prison; Donagh O'Kennedy, Donagh Serenan, Fulgentius Jordan, Raymund O'Malley, John Tullis, and Thomas Deir, Augustinians, Cork, 1654; James Chevers, O.S.F., James Roche, O.S.F., John Mocleus (? Mockler), O.S.F., John O'Loughlin, O.P., two Dominican fathers, Kilmallock. apparently the lay brothers Fitzgibbon and Fox, 1648; Michael Fitzsimon, 1.; Conn O'Kiennan, hanged, drawn, and quartered, 1615; Daniel O'Boyle, O.S.F.; Dermot MacCarrha (MacCarthy), p.; Donchus O'Falvey, p., perhaps the Daniel Falvey, friar, remanded at Kerry Lent Assizes, 1703; John MacConnan, p., possibly the John Orman (Conan) of Copinger, executed by martial law, Dublin, 1618, and the John Honan, O.S.F., 1617 (the correct date is 1618-see above); John O'Grady, p.; Thomas Fleming, 1.; Lewis O'Laverty, p., hanged, drawn, and quartered, 1615.
O'REILLY, Memorials of those who suffered for the Catholic Faith in Ireland (London, 1868); MURPHY, Our Martyrs (Dublin, 1896); Irish Ecclesiastical Record, XIII (1903), 421; MORAN, Historical Sketch of the Persecutions suffered by the Catholics of Ireland under Cromwell and the Puritans (Dublin, 1884) ; IDEM, History of the Catholic Archbishops of Dublin (Dublin, 1864); Spicilegium Ossoriense, I (Dublin, 1873), III (Dublin, 1884); ROTHE, Analecta Nova et Mira, ed. MORAN (Dublin, 1884); O'SULLEVAN BEARR, Patrician Decas (Madrid, 1629); BRUODIN, Propugnaculum Catholicas Veritatis (Prague, 1669).