Archbishop of Milan (1018-1045)
Heribert (ARIBERT), Archbishop of Milan (1018-1045), an ambitious and warlike prince of the Church; d. at Monza, January 16, 1045. After Conrad II was elected King of Germany in 1024, Heribert visited the new king at Constance in 1025, and in consideration of various privileges promised to help him to secure the crown of Lombardy. On March 23, 1026, Heribert crowned Conrad II at Milan with the iron crown of Lombardy, and a year later was present at his imperial coronation, which was performed in Rome by John XIX on March 26, 1027. In 1034 he assisted Conrad II in the conquest of Burgundy. In his ambition to be the supreme spiritual ruler of Upper Italy, he disregarded the rights of other dioceses, and consequently came into collision with the Metropolitan of Ravenna. He, moreover, committed many acts of violence against the inferior nobility, the so-called valvassores, who in consequence revolted against him. Upon his request the emperor came to Italy to quell the revolt. When, however, the emperor demanded that the archbishop should give an account of his actions, the latter refused to do so on the plea that he was not a subject, but the equal of the emperor. Upon this the emperor had him arrested. The Milanese looked upon this act as a national insult, and, after the archbishop's escape, assisted him loyally against all the attempts of the emperor to gain possession of Milan, even after the archbishop was excommunicated by Benedict IX in March, 1038. In the same year Heribert introduced the famous carroccio as the military insignia of Milan. It was afterwards accepted by the cities of Lombardy and Tuscany and by Rome. After the death of Conrad II, Heribert made peace with the new emperor, Henry III, at Ingelheim in 1040.