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Updated:  Aug 12, 2013
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Gabriel-Auguste Daubree

French geologist, b. at Metz, June 25, 1814; d. at Paris, May 29, 1896

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* Published by Encyclopedia Press, 1913.


Daubree, GABRIEL-AUGUSTE, French geologist, b. at Metz, June 25, 1814; d. at Paris, May 29, 1896. He studied mining engineering at the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris and in 1834 entered the Government service. After being sent on commissions to England, Sweden, and Norway, he was attached to the department of the Lower Rhine. He was a close observer of geological phenomena and during this time published a paper on the ore deposits of Scandinavia which attracted the attention of Berzelius, and also issued his "Description geologique et mineralogique du departement du Bas-Rhin". His appointment as professor of geology and mineralogy at Strasburg f urnished him with a laboratory suitable for his experimental work in synthetic geology, begun in 1849. His brilliant experimental researches at Strasburg, and later at Paris, extended over a number of years and have served to make him famous in the annals of geology. They comprised the artificial production of minerals, the geological action of superheated aqueous vapour, the effect of mutual abrasion, the influence of pressure and strain in mountain-making, etc. During the years 1857-61 he made a detailed study of the hot springs of Plombieres, observing at the same time the chemical action of thermal waters. In 1861 he was admitted to the Academie des Sciences and succeeded Cordier as professor of geology at the Museum of Natural History in Paris and curator of the collections; to the latter he made extensive additions, particularly of meteorites. It may be mentioned in this connection that daubreelite (CrS), a grayish granular mineral found in meteoric iron, was named after him. From 1862 he also lectured on mineralogy at the Ecole des Mines of which he became director in 1872. Daubree's career was a long and active one. He was one of the foremost of Catholic geologists, and was much esteemed for his amiability and nobility of character. One of his friends and admirers was Dom Pedro, Emperor of Brazil. Besides the works already mentioned, he was the author of: "Observations sur le metamorphisme" (Paris, 1858); "Etudes synthetiques de geologie experimentale" (Paris, 1879); "Les eaux souterraines" (Paris, 1887); "La classification des meteorites du Museum", and many articles in the "Journal des savants" and the "Revue des deux mondes".

HENRY M. BROCK


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