Cause of the beatification of the English Martyrs (1534-1729)
English Confessors and Martyrs (1534-1729).—Though the resistance of the English as a people to the Reformation compares very badly with the resistance offered by several other nations, the example given by those who did stand firm is remarkably interesting and instructive. (I) They suffered the extreme penalty for maintaining the unity of the Church and the supremacy of the Apostolic See, the doctrines most impugned by the Reformation in all lands and at all times. (2) They maintained their faith almost entirely by the most modern methods, and they were the first so to maintain it, i.e. by education of the clergy in seminaries, and of Catholic youth in colleges, at the risk, and often at the cost, of life. (3) The tyranny they had to withstand was, as a rule, not the sudden violence of a tyrant, but the continuous oppression of laws, sanctioned by the people in Parliament, passed on the specious plea of political and national necessity, and operating for centuries with that almost irresistible force which the law acquires when acting for generations in conservative and law-abiding countries. (4) The study of their causes and their acts is easy. The number of martyrs is many; their trials are spread over a long time. We have in many cases the papers of the prosecution as well as those of the defense, and the voice of Rome is frequently heard pronouncing on the questions in debate, and declaring that this or that matter is essential, on which no compromise can be permitted; or by her silence she lets it be understood that some other formula may pass.
THE CAUSE OF THE BEATIFICATION of the English Martyrs is important not for England only, but for all missionary countries, where its precedents may possibly be followed. The English cause is a very ancient one. Pope Gregory XIII, between 1580 and 1585, made several important viva voce concessions. Relics of these martyrs might, in default of others, be used for the consecration of altars, a Te Deum might be publicly sung on the receipt of the news of their martyrdoms, and their pictures with their names attached might be placed in the church of the English College, Rome. These permissions were given without any systematic inquiry that we know of. Pope Urban VIII, in 1642, commenced such an inquiry, and though the outbreak of the Civil War in 1642 postponed indefinitely the public progress of the cause, a list of martyrs was drawn up by the then vicar Apostolic, Dr. Richard Smith, Bishop of Chalcedon, which was subsequently amplified and published by Dr. Richard Challoner. It was not till 1855 that the cause was revived, when Canon John Morris (a Jesuit after 1866) became its apostle. After several unsuccessful petitions, as that of the Third Synod of Westminster in 1859, to obtain an immediate sanction of their cultus by a papal decree, a formal "ordinary process" was held in London, June to September, 1874. The work was one of much difficulty, first because nothing of the sort had been attempted in England before, and secondly because of the multitude of the martyrs. Largely, however, through the public spirit of the Fathers of the London Oratory, who devoted themselves to it unitedly, success was achieved both in gathering together a large body of evidence and in fulfilling the multifarious ceremonial precautions on which the Roman jurists so strongly insist. After the cause had been for twelve years in the Roman courts, two decrees were issued which, broadly speaking, gave full force and efficacy to the two ancient papal ordinations before mentioned (see Beatification and Canonization).
Thus Pope Gregory's concession resulted in the equivalent beatification of sixty-three martyrs mentioned by name in the pictures (at first, in 1888, fifty-four were admitted; in 1895 eight more were added, with one not in the Roman pictures), while the lists drawn up by Bishops Smith and Challoner led to the "admission of the cause" of 241 martyrs (all but twelve post-Gregorian), who are therefore called "Venerables". Forty-four were left with their fate still in suspense, and are called Dilati. Except seven, these are all "Confessors", who certainly died in prison for their faith, though it is not yet proven that they died precisely because of their imprisonment. There is yet another class to be described. While the foregoing cause was pending, great progress was being made with the arrangement of papers in the Public Record Office of London, so that we now know immeasurably more of the persecution and its victims than before the cause began. In short, over 230 additional sufferers seemed possibly worthy of being declared martyrs. They are called the Proetermissi, because they were passed over in the first cause. A new cause was thereupon held at Westminster (September, 1888, to August, 1889), and the proceedings have been sent to Rome. For reasons which it is not necessary to touch upon here, it was thought best to include every possible claimant, even those of whom there was very little definite information, and the far-reaching cause of Queen Mary Stuart. This, however, proved a tactical mistake. An obscure cause needs as much attention as a clear cause, or more. Moreover, the Roman courts are, on the one hand, so short-handed that they grudge giving men to a work which will lead to little result, and, on the other hand, they are overwhelmed with causes which certainly need attention. In order to facilitate progress, therefore, the cause has been split up; the case of Queen Mary has been handed over to the hierarchy of Scotland, and other simplifications have been attempted; nevertheless the cause of the Proetermissi so far hangs fire. Apostolic letters for a Processus de Scriptis were issued by the Sacred Congregation of Rites on March 24, 1899, ordering the then Archbishop of Westminster to gather up copies of all the extant writings of the martyrs declared Venerable. This proved a lengthy task, and when complete the collection comprised nearly 500 scripta, and over 2000 pages. It was not completed till June 17, 1904. Then, by special concession, four censors were appointed to draw up a preliminary censura in England, and this was forwarded to Rome, where, after further consideration, a decree was drawn up and confirmed by the pope on March 2, 1906, declaring that none of the writings produced would hinder the cause of the martyrs now under discussion. In the course of the same year a further decree was obtained, allowing altars for the beati, but not without many restrictions.
—The sixty-three Blessed will be noticed in detail elsewhere, and the principal authorities will be there noted. Their names are here arranged in companies when they were tried or died together.
(1) Under King Henry VIII
—Cardinal: John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, June 22, 1535. Lord Chancellor: Sir Thomas More, July 6, 1535. Carthusians: John Houghton, Robert Lawrence, Augustine Webster, May 4, 1535; Humphrey Middlemore, William Exmew, Sebastian Newdigate, June 19, 1535; John Rochester, James Walworth, May 11, 1537; Thomas Johnson, William Greenwood, John Davye, Robert Salt, Walter Pierson, Thomas Greene, Thomas Scryven, Thomas Redyng, Richard Bere, June-September, 1537; Robert Horne, August 4, 1540. Benedictines: Richard Whiting, Hugh Farringdon, abbots, November 15, 1539; Thomas Marshal (or John Beche), December 1, 1539; John Thorne, Roger James, William Eynon, John Rugg, November 15, 1539. Doctors of Divinity: Thomas Abel, Edward Powell, Richard Fetherstone, July 30, 1540. Other secular priests: John Haile, May 4, 1535; John Larke, March 7, 1544. Other religious orders: Richard Reynold, Brigittine (May 4, 1535); John Stone, O.S.A., May 12, 1538; John Forest, O.S.F., May 22, 1538. Laymen and women: Adrian Fortescue, Knight of St. John, July 9, 1539; Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury, May 28, 1541; German Gardiner, March 7, 1544.
(2) Under Queen Elizabeth
—Martyrs connected with the Excommunication: John Felton, August 8, 1570; Thomas Plumtree p., January 4, 1571; John Storey, D.C.L., June 1, 1571; Thomas Percy, Earl of Northumberland, August 22, 1572; Thomas Woodhouse p., June 13, 1573. First martyrs from the seminaries: Cuthbert Mayne, Protomartyr of Douai College, November 29, 1577; John Nelson p. and S.J. before death, 3 Feb, 1578; Thomas Sherwood, church student, February 7, 1578; Everard Hanse p., July 31, 1581. Martyrs of the Catholic Revival: Edmund Campion, S.J., Ralph Sherwin, Protomartyr of English College, Rome, Alexander Briant p. and S.J. before death, December 1, 1581; John Payne p., April 2, 1582; Thomas Ford p., John Shert p., Robert Johnson p., May 28, 1582; William Filby p., Luke Kirby p. Lawrence Richardson p., Thomas Cottam p. and S.J. before death, May 30, 1582. York martyrs: William Lacey p., Richard Kirkman p., August 22, 1582; James Thompson p., November 28, 1582; William Hart p., March 15, 1583; Richard Thirkeld p., May 29, 1583.
—Separate notices will be given of the more notable martyrs and groups of martyrs. But, though they all died heroically, their lives were so retired and obscure that there is generally but little known about them. It may, however, be remarked that, being educated in most cases in the same seminaries, engaged in the same work, and suffering under the same procedure and laws, the details which we know about some of the more notable martyrs (of whom special biographies are given) are generally also true for the more obscure. The authorities, too, will be the same in both cases.
(1) Under King Henry VIII (12).
—1537-38: Anthony Brookby, Thomas Belchiam, Thomas Cort, Franciscans, thrown into prison for preaching against the king's supremacy. Brookby was strangled with his own girdle, the others died of ill treatment. 1539: Friar Waire, O.S.F., and John Griffith p. (generally known as Griffith Clarke), Vicar of Wandsworth, for supporting the papal legate, Cardinal Pole, drawn and quartered (July 8) at St. Thomas Waterings; Sir Thomas Dingley, Knight of St. John, beheaded, July 10, with Bl. Adrian Fortescue, q.v. John Travers, Irish Augustinian, who had written against the supremacy; before execution his hand was cut off and burnt, but the writing fingers were not consumed, July 30. 1540-44: Edmund Brindholme p., of London, and Clement Philpot 1., of Calais, attainted for having "adhered to the Pope of Rome", hanged and quartered at Tyburn, August 4, 1540; Sir David Gonson (also Genson and Gunston), Knight of St. John, son of Vice-Admiral Gonson, attainted for "adhering" to Cardinal Pole, hanged and quartered at St. Thomas Waterings, July 1, 1541; John Ireland p., once a chaplain to More, condemned and executed with Blessed John Larke, 1544; Thomas Ashby 1., q.v., March 29, 1544.
(2) Under Queen Elizabeth.
—1583: John Slade 1., q.v., October 30, Winchester, with John Bodey 1., November 2, Andover. 1584: William Carter 1., q.v., January 11, Tyburn; George Haydock p., q.v., with James Fenn p., Thomas Hemerford p., John Nutter p., John Munden p., February 12, Tyburn; James Bell p., q.v., with John Finch 1., q.v., April 20, Lancaster; Richard White 1., q.v., October 17, Wrexham. 1585: Thomas Alfield p., q.v., with Thomas Webley 1., July 6, Tyburn; Hugh Taylor p., q.v., with Marmaduke Bowes 1., November 26, York. From this time onwards almost all the priests suffered under the law of 27 Elizabeth, merely for their priestly character. 1586: Edward Stransham p., q.v., with Nicholas Woodfen p., January 21, Tyburn; Margaret Clitherow 1., q.v., March 25, York; Richard Sergeant p., q.v., with William Thompson p., April 20, Tyburn; Robert Anderton p., q.v., with William Marsden p., April 25, Isle of Wight; Francis Ingleby p., June 3, York; John Finglow p., August 8, York; John Sandys p., August 11, Gloucester; John Adams p., q.v., with John Lowe p., October 8, Tyburn, and Richard Dibdale p., October 8, Tyburn; Robert Bickerdike 1., October 8, York; Richard Langley 1., December 1, York. 1587: Thomas Pilchard p., March 21, Dorchester; Edmund Sykes p., q.v., March 23, York; Robert Sutton p., q.v., July 27, Stafford; Stephen Rowsham p., q.v., July or earlier, Gloucester; John Hambley p., q.v., about same time, Chard in Somerset; George Douglas p., September 9, York; Alexander Crowe p., November 13, York. 1588: Nicholas Garlick p., q.v., with Robert Ludlam and Richard Sympson p., July 24, Derby; Robert Morton p., q.v., and Hugh Moor 1., in Lincoln's Inn Fields; William Gunter p., Theatre, Southwark; Thomas Holford p., Clerkenwell; William Dean p., and Henry Webley I., Mile E_id Green; James Claxton p.; Thomas Felton, O.S.F., Hounslow. These eight were condemned together and suffered on the same day, August 28 Richard Leigh p., q.v., Edward Shelley 1., Richard Martin 1., Richard Flower (Floyd or Lloyd) 1., John Roche 1., Mrs. Margaret Ward, q.v., all condemned with the last, and all suffered August 30, Tyburn. William Way p., September 23, Kingston-on-Thames; Robert Wilcox p., q.v., with Edward Campion p., Christopher Buxton p., Robert Widmerpool 1., October 1, Canterbury; Ralph Crockett p., q.v., with Edward James p., October 1, Chichester; John Robinson p., October 1, Ipswich; William Hartley p., q.v., Theatre, Southwark, with John Weldon (vere Hewett) p., Mile End Green, Robert Sutton 1., Clerkenwell, and Richard Williams (Queen Mary priest, who was more probably executed in 1592, and his name, erroneously transferred here, seems to have pushed out that of John Symons, or Harrison), October 5, Holloway; Edward Burden p., November 29, York; William Lampley 1., Gloucester, day uncertain. 1589: John Amias p., v., with Robert Dalby p., March 16, York; George Nichols p., q.v., with Richard Yaxley p., Thomas Belson 1., and Humphrey Pritchard 1., July 5, Oxford; William Spenser p., q.v., with Robert Hardesty 1., September 24, York. 1590: Christopher Bayles p., Fleet Street, with Nicholas Horner 1., Smithfield, and Alexander Blake 1., March 4, Gray's Inn Lane; Miles Gerard p., q.v., with Francis Dicconson p., April 30, Rochester; Edward Jones p., Conduit, Fleet Street, and Anthony Middleton p., May 6, Clerkenwell; Edmund Duke p., with Richard Hill p., q.v., John Hogg p., and Richard Holliday p., May 27, Durham. 1591: Robert Thorpe p., q.v., with Thomas Watkinson 1., May 31, York; Monford Scott p., q.v., with George Beesley p., July 2, Fleet Street, London; Roger Dicconson p., with Ralph Milner 1., July 7, Winchester; William Pikes 1., day not known, Dorchester; Edmund Jennings p., q.v., with Swithin Wells 1., Gray's Inn Fields; Eustace White p., q.v., with Polydore Plasden p., Brian Lacy 1., John Mason 1., Sydney Hodgson 1., all seven, December 10, Tyburn. 1592: William Patenson p., January 22, Tyburn; Thomas Pormort p., q.v., February 20, St. Paul's Churchyard, London; Roger Ashton 1., q.v., June 23, Tyburn. 1593: Edward Waterson p., January 7 (but perhaps of the next year), Newcastle-on-Tyne; James Bird 1., hanged March 25, Winchester; Joseph Lampton p., q.v., July 27, Newcastle-on-Tyne; William Davies p., q.v., July 21, Beaumaris. 1594: John Speed 1., condemned for receiving a priest, February 4, Durham; William Harrington p., q.v., February 18, Tyburn; John Cornelius, S.J., q.v., with Thomas Bosgrave 1., John Carey 1., Patrick Salmon 1., July 4, Dorchester; John Boste p., q.v., Durham, with John Ingram p., q.v., Newcastle-on-Tyne, and George Swallowell, a convert minister, tried together, and they suffered 24, 25, and July 26, Darlington; Edward Osbaldeston p., November 16, York. 1595: Robert Southwell p., S.J., q.v., February 21, Tyburn; Alexander Rawlins p., with Henry Walpole p., S.J., q.v., April 7, York; William Freeman p., q.v., August 13, Warwick; Philip Howard, q.v., Earl of Arundel, October 19, Tower of London. 1596: George Errington, gentleman, William Knight 1., William Gibson 1., Henry Abbot I., November 29, York. 1597: William Andleby p., q.v., with Thomas Warcop 1., Edward Fulthrop 1., July 4, York. 1598: John Britton 1., q.v., April 1, York; Peter Snow p., q.v., with Ralph Grimston l., June 15, York; John Buckley, O.S.F., q.v., July 12, St. Thomas Waterings; Christopher Robinson p., August 19, Carlisle; Richard Horner p., September 4, York. 1599: John Lion 1., July 16, Oakham; James Dowdall 1., August 13, Exeter. 1600: Christopher Wharton p., March 28, York; John Rigby 1., q.v., June 21, St. Thomas Waterings; Thomas Sprott p., q.v., with Thomas Hunt p., July 11, Lincoln; Robert Nutter p., q.v., with Edward Thwing p., July 26, Lancaster; Thomas Palasor p., q.v., with John Norton 1. and John Talbot 1., August 9, Durham. 1601: John Pibush p., February 18, St. Thomas Waterings, Mark Barkworth, O.S.B., q.v., with Roger Filcock, S.J. and Anne Line, q.v., February 27, Tyburn; Thurstan Hunt p., q.v., with Robert Middleton p., March 31, Lancaster; Nicholas Tichborne 1., q.v., with Thomas Hackshot 1., August 24, Tyburn. 1602: James Harrison p., q.v., with Anthony Battie or Bates 1., March 22, York; James Duckett 1., q.v., April 19, Tyburn; Thomas Tichborne p., q.v., with Robert Watkinson p., and Francis Page, S.J., April 20, Tyburn. 1603: William Richardson p., February 17, Tyburn.
(3) Under James I and Charles.
—1604: John Sugar p., q.v., with Robert Grissold 1., July 16, Warwick; Lawrence Bailey 1., September 16, Lancaster. 1605: Thomas Welbourne 1., with John Fulthering 1., August 1, York; William Brown 1., September 5, Ripon. 1606: Martyrs at the time of the Powder Plot: Nicholas Owen, S.J., day unknown, Tower; Edward Oldcorne, S.J., q.v., with Ralph Ashley, S.J., q.v., April 7, Worcester. From this time till the end of the reign the martyrs might have saved their lives had they taken the condemned oath of allegiance. 1607: Robert Drury p., February 26, Tyburn. 1608: Matthew Flathers p., March 21, York; George Gervase, O.S.B., q.v., April 11, Tyburn; Thomas Garnet, S.J., q.v., June 23, Tyburn. 1610: Roger Cadwallador p., q.v., August 27, Leominster; George Napper p., q.v., November 9, Oxford; Thomas Somers p., December 10, Tyburn; John Roberts, O.S.B., q.v., December 10, Tyburn. 1612: William Scot, O.S.B., q.v., with Richard Newport p., May 30, Tyburn; John Almond p., December 5, Tyburn. 1616: Thomas Atkinson p., q.v., March 11, York; John Thulis p., with Roger Wrenno 1., March 18, Lancaster; Thomas Maxfield p., q.v., July 1, Tyburn; Thomas Tunstal p., July 13, Norwich. 1618: William Southerne p., April 30, Newcastle-under-Lyne. 1628: Edmund Arrowsmith, S.J. (see Edmund Arrowsmith, Venerable), with Richard Herst 1., 20 and August 21, Lancaster.
—All these suffered before the death of Oliver Cromwell.—1641: William Ward p., q.v., July 26, Tyburn; Edward Barlow, O.S.B., q.v., September 10, Lancaster. 1642: Thomas Reynolds p., with Bartholomew Roe, O.S.B., January 21, Tyburn; John Lockwood p., q.v., with Edmund Catherick p., q.v., April 13, York; Edward Morgan p., q.v., April 26, Tyburn; Hugh Green p., q.v., August 19, Dorchester; Thomas Bullaker, O.S.F., q.v., October 12, Tyburn; Thomas Holland, S.J., q.v., December 12, Tyburn. 1643: Henry Heath, O.S.F., q.v., April 17, Tyburn; Brian Cansfield, S.J., August 3, York Castle; Arthur Bell, O.S.F., q.v., December 11, Tyburn. 1644: Richard Price, colonel, May 7, Lincoln; John Duckett p., with Ralph Corbie, S.J., q.v., September 7, Tyburn. 1645; Henry Morse, S.J., q.v., February 1, Tyburn; John Goodman p., q.v., April 8, Newgate. 1646: Philip Powel, O.S.B., June 30, Tyburn; John Woodcock, O.S.F., with Edward Bamber p., q.v., and Thomas Whitaker p., August 7, Lancaster. 1651: Peter Wright, S.J., q.v., May 19, Tyburn. 1654: John Southworth p., q.v., June 28, Tyburn.
(5) The Oates Plot.
—1678: Edward Coleman 1., q.v., December 3, Tyburn; Edward Mico, S.J., December 3, in Newgate; Thomas Bedingfeld, S.J., December 21, in Gatehouse Prison. 1679: William Ireland, S.J., q.v., with John Grove 1., January 24, Tyburn; Thomas Pickering, O.S.B., May 9, Tyburn; Thomas Whitbread, S.J., with William Harcourt, S.J., John Fenwick, S.J., John Gavan, or Green, S.J., and Anthony Turner, S.J., June 20, Tyburn; Francis Nevil, S.J., February, in Stafford Gaol; Richard Langhorne 1., q.v., July 14, Tyburn; William Plessington p., July 19, Chester; Philip Evans, S.J., July 22, with John Lloyd p., July 22, Cardiff; Nicholas Postgate p., q.v., August 7, York; Charles Mahony, O.S.F., August 12, Ruthin; John Wall, O.S.F., q.v., August 22, Worcester; Francis Levison, O.S.F., February 11, in prison; John Kemble p., q.v., August 22, Hereford; David Lewis, S.J., q.v., August 27, Usk. 1680: Thomas Thwing p., q.v., October 23, York; William Howard, q.v., Viscount Stafford, December 29, Tower Hill. The cause of the Irish Martyr Oliver Plunket, q.v., July 1, Tower Hill, was commenced with the above martyrs. The cause of his beatification is now being actively proceeded with by the Cardinal Archbishop of Armagh.
III. THE FORTY-FOUR DILATI.
—These, as has been explained above, are those "put off" for further proof. Of these the majority were confessors, who perished after a comparatively short period of imprisonment, though definite proof of their death ex cerumnis is not forthcoming.
(1) Under Queen Elizabeth (18)
—Robert Dimock, hereditary champion of England, was arrested at Mass, and perished after a few weeks' imprisonment at Lincoln, September 11; 1580; John Cooper, a young man, brought up by the writer, Dr. Nicholas Harpsfield, and probably a distributor of Catholic books, arrested at Dover, and sent to the Tower, died of "hunger, cold and stench", 1580; Mr. Ailworth (Aylword), probably of Passage Castle, Waterford, who admitted Catholics to Mass at his house, was arrested, and died after eight days, 1580; William Chaplain p., Thomas Cotesmore p., Robert Holmes p., Roger Wakeman p., James Lomax p., perished in 1584. Cotesmore was a bachelor of Oxford in 1536; of Wakeman's sufferings several harrowing details are on record. Thomas Crowther p., Edward Pole p., John Jetter p., and Laurence Vaux p., q.v., perished in 1585; John Harrison p., 1586; Martin Sherson p., and Gabriel Thimelby p., 1587; Thomas Metham, S.J., 1592; Eleanor Hunt and Mrs. Wells, gentlewomen, on unknown days in 1600 and 1602.
(2) Under the Commonwealth (8)
—Edward Wilkes p., died in York Castle before execution in 1642; Boniface Kempe (or Francis Kipton) and Ildephonse Hesketh (or William Hanson), O.S.B., professed of Montserrat, seized by Puritan soldiery in Yorkshire, and worried to death, July 26 (?), 1644; Richard Bradley, S.J., b. at Bryning Hall, Lancs., 1605, of a well-known Catholic family, seized and imprisoned, but died before trial at Manchester, January 20, 1645; John Felton, S.J., visiting another Father in Lincoln, was seized and so badly used that, when released (for no one appeared against him), he died within a month, February 17, 1645; Thomas Vaughan of Courtfield p., and Thomas Blount p., imprisoned at Shrewsbury, d. at unknown dates; Robert Cox, O.S.B., d. in the Clink Prison, 1650.
(3) During the Oates Plot (10)
—Thomas Jennison, S.J., d. after twelve months' imprisonment, September 27, 1679. He had renounced a handsome inheritance in favor of his brother, who, nevertheless, having apostatized, turned king's evidence against him. William Lloyd, d. under sentence of death at Brecknock, 1679. Placid Aldham or John Adland (O.S.B.), a convert clergyman, chaplain to Queen Catherine of Braganza, d. under sentence in 1679. William Atkins, S.J., condemned at Stafford, was too deaf to hear the sentence. When it was shouted in his ear, he turned and thanked the judge; he was reprieved and d. in bonds, March 7, 1681. Richard Birkett p., d. 1680 under sentence in Lancaster Castle; but our martyrologists seem to have made some confusion between him and John Penketh, S.J., a fellow prisoner (see Gillow, Catholic Rec. Soc., IV, pp. 431-40). Richard Lacey (Prince), S.J., Newgate, March 11, 1680; William Allison p., York Castle, 1681; Edward Turner, S.J., March 19, 1681, Gatehouse; Benedict Constable, O.S.B., professed at Lamspring, 1669, December 11, 1683, Durham Gaol; William Bennet (Bentney), S.J., October 30, 1692, Leicester Gaol under William III.
(4) Others Put off for Various Causes (8)
—John Mawson, assigned to 1614, is not yet sufficiently distinguished from John Mason, 1591; there is a similar difficulty between Matthias Harrison, assigned to 1599, and James Harrison, 1602; William Tyrrwhit, named by error for his brother Robert; likewise the identity of Thomas Dyer, O.S.B., has not been fully proved; James Atkinson, killed under torture by Topcliffe, but evidence is wanted of his constancy to the end. Father Henry Garnet, S.J., q.v.; was he killed ex odio fidei, or was he believed to be guilty of the Powder Plot, by merely human misjudgment, not through religious prejudice? The case of Lawrence Hill and Robert Green at the time of the Oates Plot is similar. Was it due to odium fidei, or an unprejudiced error?
IV. THE PRAETERMISSI (242)
(1) Martyrs on the Scaffold.
—1534: Elizabeth Barton, q.v. (The Holy Maid of Kent), with five companions; John Dering, O.S.B., Edward Bocking, O.S.B., Hugh Rich, O.S.F., Richard Masters p., Henry Gold p., 1537. Monks, 28.—After the Pilgrimage of Grace, and the Rising of Lincolnshire many, probably several hundred, were executed, of whom no record remains. The following names, which do survive, are grouped under their respective abbeys or priories.—Barling: Matthew Mackerel, abbot and Bishop of Chalcedon, Ord. Praem., Bardney: John Tenant, William Coe, John Francis, William Cowper, Richard Laynton, Hugh Londale, monks. Bridlington: William Wood, Prior. Fountains: William Thyrsk, O. Cist. Guisborough: James Cockerell, Prior. Jervaulx: Adam Sedbar, Abbot; George Asleby, monk. Kirkstead: Richard Harrison, Abbot, Richard Wade, William Swale, Henry Jenkinson, monks. Lenton: Nicholas Heath, Prior; William Gylham, monk. Sawley: William Trafford, Abbot; Richard Eastgate, monk. Whalley: John Paslew, Abbot; John Eastgate, William Haydock, monks. Woburn: Robert Hobbes, Abbot; Ralph Barnes, sub-prior; Laurence Blonham, monk. York: John Pickering, O.S.D., Prior. Place unknown: George ab Alba Rosa, O.S.A. Priests: William Burraby, Thomas Kendal, John Henmarsh, James Mallet, John Pickering, Thomas Redforth. Lords: Darcy and Hussey. Knights: Francis Bigod, Stephen Hammerton, Thomas Percy. Laymen (11): Robert Aske, Robert Constable, Bernard Fletcher, George Huddeswell, Robert Leeche, Roger Neeve, George Lomley, Thomas Moyne, Robert Sotheby, Nicholas Tempest, Philip Trotter. 1538 (7): Henry Courtney, the Marquess of Exeter; Henry Pole, Lord Montague; Sir Edward Neville and Sir Nicholas Carew; George Croft p. and John Collins p.; Hugh Holland 1. Their cause was "adhering to the Pope, and his legate Cardinal Pole". 1540 (6): Lawrence Cook, O. Carm., Prior of Doncaster; Thomas Empson, O.S.B.; Robert Bird p.; William Peterson p.; William Richardson p.; Giles Heron 1. 1544 (3): Martin de Coudres, O.S.A., and Paul of St. William, O.S.A.; Darby Gentling 1. 1569, 1570 (8): Thomas Bishop, Simon Digby, John Fulthorpe, John Hall, Christopher Norton, Thomas Norton, Robert Pennyman, Oswald Wilkinson, laymen, who suffered, like Blessed Thomas Percy, Earl of Northumberland, q.v., on occasion of the Northern Rising. Various Years (6): Thomas Gabyt, O. Cist., 1575; William Hambledon p., 1585; Roger Martin p., 1592; Christopher Dixon, O.S.A., 1616; James Laburne, 1583; Edward Arden, 1584.
(2) Martyrs in Chains.
—Bishops (2): Richard Creagh, Archbishop of Armagh, in Tower of London; Thomas Watson, Bishop of Lincoln, in Wisbeach Castle. Priests in London Prisons (18): Austin Abbot, Richard Adams, Thomas Belser, John Boxall, D.D., James Brushford, Edmund Cannon, William Chedsey, D.D., Henry Cole, D.D., Anthony Draycott, D.D., Andrew Fryer,—Gretus, Richard Hatton, Nicholas Harpsfield,—Harrison, Francis Quashet, Thomas Slythurst, William Wood, John Young, D.D. Laymen in London Prisons (35): Alexander Bales, Richard Bolbet, Sandra Cubley, Thomas Cosen, Mrs. Cosen, Hugh Dutton, Edward Ellis, Gabriel Empringham, John Fitzherbert, Sir Thomas Fitzherbert, John Frier, Anthony Fugatio (Portuguese),—Glynne, David Gwynne, John Hammond (alias Jackson), Richard Hart, Robert Holland, John Lander, Anne Lander, Peter Lawson, Widow Lingon, Philippa Lowe,—May, John Molineux, Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, Richard Reynolds, Edmund Sexton, Robert Shelley, Thomas Somerset, Francis Spencer, John Thomas, Peter Tichborne, William Travers, Sir Edward Waldegrave, Richard Weston. Priests in York (12): John Ackridge, William Baldwin, William Bannersley, Thomas Bedal, Richard Bowes, Henry Comberford, James Gerard, Nicholas Grene, Thomas Harwood, John Pearson, Thomas Ridall, James Swarbrick. Laymen in York (31): Anthony Ash, Thomas Blenkinsop, Stephen Branton, Lucy Budge, John Chalmar, Isabel Chalmer, John Constable, Ralph Cowling, John Eldersha, Isabel Foster,—Foster, Agnes Fuister, Thomas Horsley, Stephen Hemsworth, Mary Hutton, Agnes Johnson, Thomas Layne, Thomas Luke, Alice Oldcorne, Reynold, Robinson, John Stable, Mrs. Margaret Stable, Geoffrey Stephenson, Thomas Vavasour, Mrs. Dorothy Vavasour, Margaret Webster, Frances Webster, Christopher Watson, Hercules Welbourne, Alice Williamson. In Various Prisons: Benedictines (11): James Brown, Richard Coppinger, Robert Edmonds, John Feckenham, Laurence Mabbs, William Middleton, Placid Peto, Thomas Preston, Boniface Wilford, Thomas Rede, Sister Isabel Whitehead. Brigittine: Thomas Brownel (lay brother). Cistercians (2): John Almond, Thomas Mudde. Dominican: David Joseph Kemys. Franciscans: Thomas Ackridge, Paul Atkinson, q.v. (the last of the confessors in chains, died in Hurst Castle, after thirty years' imprisonment, October 15, 1729), Laurence Collier, Walter Coleman, Germain Holmes. Jesuits (12): Matthew Brazier (alias Grimes), Humphrey Browne, Thomas Foster, William Harcourt, John Hudd, Cuthbert Prescott, Ignatius Price, Charles Pritchard, Francis Simeon, Nicholas Tempest, John Thompson, Charles Thursley. Priests (4): William Baldwin, James Gerard, John Pearson, James Swarbrick. Laymen (22): Thurstam Arrowsmith, Humphrey Beresford, William Bredstock, James Clayton, William Deeg, Ursula Foster,—Green, William Griffith, William Heath, Richard Hocknell, John Jessop, Richard Kitchin, William Knowles, Thomas Lynch, William Maxfield,—Morecock, Alice Paulin, Edmund Rookwood, Richard Spencer,—Tremaine, Edmund Vyse, Jane Vyse.
V. THE ELEVEN BISHOPS.
—Since the process of the Proetermissi has been held, strong reasons have been shown for including on our list of sufferers, whose causes ought to be considered, the eleven bishops whom Queen Elizabeth deprived and left to die in prison, as Bonner, or under some form of confinement. Their names are: Cuthbert Tunstall, b. Durham, died November 18, 1559; Ralph Bayle, b. Lichfield, d. November 18, 1559; Owen Oglethorpe, b. Carlisle, d. December 31, 1559; John White, b. Winchester, d. January 12, 1560; Richard Pate, b. Worcester, d. November 23, 1565; David Poole, b. Peterborough, d. May, 1568; Edmund Bonner, b. London, d. September 5, 1569; Gilbert Bourne, b. Bath and Wells, d. September 10, 1569; Thomas Thirlby, b. Ely., d. August 26, 1570; James Turberville, b. Exeter, d. November 1, 1570; Nicholas Heath, Archbishop of York, d. December, 1578.
J. H. POLLEN